January 20, 2022

Antarctica is the area around the South Pole. The name comes from the Greek compound word Antarctica (Aνταρκτική), which means "reverse of the Arctic". The name Antarctica is also used in Norwegian somewhat incorrectly about the continent Antarctica, and vice versa. Like the Arctic, Antarctica has low temperatures all year round, especially around the month of June when it is dark around the clock due to winter. In the summer around December it is bright around the clock. The definition of the border with Antarctica is unclear. Some use the Antarctic convergence, a distinction between cold sea water in the south and warm sea water in the north, as a natural boundary. This boundary fluctuates between 50 ° and 60 ° south latitude. The Antarctic Treaty applies up to 60 ° south latitude. The Arctic Circle is also used as a boundary. The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by twelve countries; today, 45 countries have signed the treaty. The treaty bans military activities and mining, supports scientific research, and protects Antarctica's eco-zone. Ongoing research is being conducted by more than 5,000 scientists from many nations and with different research interests. The name Antarctica is a Latinized version of the Greek compound word Antarctica (Aνταρκτική), meaning "opposite of the Arctic". Antarctica's top level domains are .aq.


Antarctica includes the continent of Antarctica, which has an area of ​​14.4 million km². It is located in the southern hemisphere, almost south of the Arctic Circle, and is bordered by the Southern Ocean. More than 99.5% of the continent is covered by ice, with an average thickness of at least 1.6 kilometers.


Antarctica consists of Precambrian rocks that are remnants of the supercontinent Gondwana. To the west, the bedrock is covered with transformed Mesozoic sediments and intruded by volcanic material. The seabed around the continent consists of basalt that is formed as a result of seabed dispersal.

Animal and plant life

With the exception of the seabirds that nest along the coast or in the nunatak area, there are no vertebrates on the continent. Of larger animals there are: penguins seler toothed whales and baleen whales sharksOf small animals and plants there are: crustaceans, such as krill and shrimp - the primary food for a number of species algae - grows on the underside of sea ice and is the primary food for many small animals, such as crayfish seaweed The Antarctic microfauna consists of protozoa, roundworms, reptiles and bears, and arthropods such as mites, collembols and fleas. The zooplankton was dominated by crustaceans such as copepods, amphipods and euphasia species such as krill. Krill are a key component of the Antarctic marine ecosystem - especially important is the species Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) which is the primary food for many higher species in the ecosystem. Other important prey animals are arrowworms (Chaetognata), jellyfish (Scyphozoa, Siphonophorida), comb jellyfish (Ctenophora), snails and salp (Thaliacea). The benthic fauna consists mainly of fungi (Porifera) and mosses (Bryozoa). The Southern Ocean is rich in squid, which is an important part of the diet for many of the larger mammal species and seabirds. Furthermore, about 200 fish species have been registered south of the Antarctic convergence, 80-100 of which are demersal fish. Many of the species are unique to Antarctica. 75% of the species are members of five families belonging to the suborder Notothenioidei, but there are also skaters (Rajiformes), eel tusks (Zoarchidae) and ringed bellies (Liparidae). The vegetation in Antarctica consists of algae, lichen and moss. Around 300 algae species have been observed, approx. 20 of these live on or in ice and snow. 200 lichen species, 85 moss species and 25 liver moss species have been registered. Two species of flowering plants (Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis) have been recorded in the northernmost areas. 100 algae species (including those that live in / on the sea ice) make up the main part of the phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean. Together with the algae, the flagellates are an important part of the nutritional basis in the mari

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