July 6, 2022

Canada is a country in North America. The country is a federation consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Ottawa is the capital. The country is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. English and French are the official languages. Canada has a population of 38.01 million. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east, to the Pacific Ocean in the west and to the North Sea in the north. The country has the world's longest coastline. With a land mass of almost 10 million km², Canada is the world's largest country after Russia. The country has a long border with the United States in the south and northwest (toward Alaska); from 2022, the country also has a short land border with Denmark, on Hans Ø near Greenland. Two-thirds of the population lives near the border with the United States. Over 80% of Canadians live in urban areas. The slogan for Canada is "from sea to sea". The maritime provinces to the east are located on the Atlantic Ocean with St. Lawrence Bay and Maine Bay, and with the large island of Newfoundland to the north. The climate here is cool. On the mainland to the east, there are hills that are the northern foothills of the Appalachians. Around the great lakes and by the St. Lawrence River in the south there is forested lowland. The central parts of the country have fertile plains, prairies, continental climate and little rainfall. To the west, Canada is characterized by the Rocky Mountains and the Coast Mountains closer to the coast. Vancouver Island is located in the far southwest. On the Pacific coast, the winter climate is mild. The landscape in the north is characterized by tundra with many Arctic islands in the far north, including Baffin Island (Qikiqtaaluk), Victoria Island (Kitlineq) and Ellesmere Island (Umingmak Nuna). With almost 14 million inhabitants (2016), Ontario is the country's most populous province. With a population of 148,600, Prince Edward Island is the smallest province in terms of population. Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa-Gatineau, Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver are urban areas with millions of people. The country that is now Canada was first populated by Inuit and Indians. As a result of British colonization of America, several separate colonies were founded. The modern state formation Canada was created in 1867 when the province of Canada, which from 1841 consisted of the English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario) and the French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec), merged into a federation with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Manitoba was established in 1870 and in 1871 British Columbia joined the state. Prince Edward Island joined in 1873, Saskatchewan and Alberta in 1905 and Newfoundland in 1949. From its founding in 1867 to 1931, the country was a dominion in the British Empire. Canada is a member of the United Nations and UN specialized agencies, Commonwealth of Nations, International Organization of Francophonie, Organization of American States (OAS), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, G7, G20 and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).


The name "Canada" probably comes from the Huron-Iroquois word kanata, which means "village" or "place of residence". In 1535, the indigenous people (in the region where today's Ville de Québec / Québec city is located) used the name to guide the French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to this particular village, but to the entire region of Donnacona (chief of Stadacona); by 1545, European books and maps had begun to refer to this region as Canada. In the 17th and 18th centuries, "Canada" was used to refer to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River and the northern banks of the the great lakes. The area was later divided into two British colonies, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. They were united as the province of Canada in 1841. At the Canadian Confederation in 1867, "Canada" was used as the name of the new country, which was designated as a dominion. When Canada secured its policy