Cubakrisen

Article

October 28, 2021

The Cuba crisis was a crisis in 1962 between the Soviet Union and Cuba on the one hand and the United States on the other. The conflict began with the United States deploying its medium-range missiles in Turkey and Italy, which pointed directly at the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union discovered this and responded by deploying missiles loaded with nuclear warheads on Cuba. The most tense period began on October 16, 1962, when President John F. Kennedy saw photographic evidence that the Soviets had installed ramps for firing nuclear weapons. The crisis lasted for thirteen days until October 28, 1962, when Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev ordered the dismantling of rocket ramps to prevent the United States from attacking Cuba and dismantling and removing its medium-range missiles from Turkey and Italy. This crisis is perceived as the period when the Cold War was almost developing into a nuclear war.

The events

The crisis erupted on October 22, 1962, when US President John F. Kennedy found out that the Soviet Union was deploying medium-range missiles in Cuba. Such a deployment would balance the terrorist balance between the United States and the Soviet Union by giving the Soviet Union, with such missiles, the opportunity for a rapid counterattack on the United States with nuclear weapons. Previously, such a counterattack - due to large distances - would have been impossible in the event of a US attack on the Soviet Union from its bases near the Soviet Union. With rockets in Cuba, the response time was reduced to about seven minutes. The Cuba crisis is one of the events during the Cold War where there was the greatest danger of military confrontation, so that the Cold War could turn into a "hot" war. Before this happened, Fidel Castro had initiated a major de-Americanization or nationalization of Cuban industry. As a result, Kennedy chose to stop all trade with Cuba and declare that the United States would impose a blockade on Cuba, a term that was later redefined to quarantine. In addition, he decided to urge dissidents and dissident organizations (such as Alpha 66 and the Cuban-American Foundation) that opposed Cuba to commit terrorism, assassination attempts on politicians and assassinations of Cuban civilians, which from 2006 to 2006 have cost 3478 Cubans live. Kennedy did this both because he felt that US interests were being threatened and to prevent the deployment of nuclear missiles, precisely because he knew that this could happen as a result of Cuba's and the Soviet Union's good relations. Such a blockade was in violation of international rules and is considered an act of war. A quarantine is more selective and in this case it only applied to offensive weapons. The Soviet Union for a while refused to stop the cargo boats that were filled with rockets that were already on their way to Cuba. It was said that a Soviet attempt to break the blockade would be met with a US sinking of the vessels, which in turn would probably have been answered with Soviet retaliation. In sum, such a confrontation would in all probability have escalated to the use of nuclear weapons in that the United States and NATO at this time had a defense doctrine that nuclear weapons could be used to defend the individual member states. While the Soviet ships were on their way to Cuba, American and Soviet diplomats engaged in an informal and secret negotiation that was to change everything. These negotiations succeeded, and the Soviet boats turned around just before reaching the Cuban quarantine. Among other things, the Norwegian Armed Forces were in a very high level of preparedness during this period, where they were ready for emergency response at short notice, especially for the departments in northern Norway. The agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union was secret and has since been gradually published. A large part of the agreement meant that the Soviet Union would stop the work of deploying medium-range missiles in Cuba in exchange for the United States dismantling and withdrawing medium-range missiles deployed in Turkey and Italy.

Footnotes and references

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Footnotes and references

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