Dmitry Andreyevich Muratov (Russian: Дмитрий Андреевич Муратов; born October 30, 1961 in Kuybyshev in the RSFSR in the Soviet Union) is a Russian journalist who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2021 together with the Philippine journalist Maria Ressa. He is the editor of the newspaper Novaja Gazeta and has also been a TV presenter.
Life and work
Muratov was born on the Volga River in the city of Kuibyshev, which later regained its older name, Samara. In high school, he contacted local newspapers and got a part-time job. He studied at the Faculty of Philology at Kuibyshev State University for five years, where he developed his interest in journalism.
After graduating from university, he served from 1983 to 1985 in the Soviet Army as a security specialist for communications equipment.
In 1987, Muratov began working as a correspondent for the newspaper Volzhsky Komsomolets. He made such an impression that towards the end of his first year he was made head of Komsomolskaya Pravda's youth department, and later he was promoted to editor of news articles. Muratov left Komsomolskaya Pravda in 1992. In 1993, Muratov, along with a number of other journalists, was the founder of the Novaya Gazeta newspaper, which saw itself as a champion of democracy. Novaya Gazeta's news desk began with two computers, two rooms, one printer and no money to pay salaries. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev donated part of his money from the Nobel Prize to pay for computers and salaries for the newspaper. Muratov was initially deputy editor. Muratov was the newspaper's editor-in-chief from 1995 to 2017 and in 2019 became editor-in-chief of the newspaper again. The newspaper is known for its coverage of sensitive and controversial topics such as corruption and human rights violations. As editor-in-chief, he has published articles by, among others, Anna Politkovskaya, who has been critical of Vladimir Putin's government. Likewise, the newspaper has covered the turbulent situation in Chechnya and in the North Caucasus.
Several journalists associated with the newspaper have been killed. Anna Politkovskaya was an employee of the newspaper, and her revelations of abuse in Chechnya are linked to what happened to her. Politkovskaya was found shot and killed in the elevator of the building she lived in in Moscow on Saturday, October 7, 2006. Several of her colleagues have also been killed: in 2000, Igor Domnikov was killed with a hammer, in 2003, Yuri Shchekotshikhin was poisoned. Anastasia Baburova was shot on the street in Moscow on January 19, 2009, while she was out on assignment for the newspaper. Later that year, the newspaper's journalist Natalya Estemirova was also shot.
On the basis of the killings, Muratov made himself a spokesman for allowing journalists to carry weapons: "Either we have to defend ourselves, or we get to write about harmless things." Muratov has marked himself as a critic of the authoritarian development in Russia and of the annexation of Crimea in 2014. He supported the protests in Belarus in 2020-2021. Muratov is a member of the Jabloko party.