Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land is the part of the Antarctic continent between 20 ° west to 45 ° east long that constitutes Norway's territorial claims in Antarctica. The coast of this area was annexed by Norway in 1939, at the initiative of polar researcher Adolf Hoel, and the area has since had the status of a Norwegian biland. The area makes up about a fifth of Antarctica and is about seven times the size of Norway (with Svalbard), and is like the rest of Antarctica, completely without local ethnic groups. The Norwegian requirement borders on the British requirement in the west and the Australian requirement in the east.
Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen has been credited with the discovery of the Antarctic continent, after reporting on January 27, 1820, an observation of an icy area "covered with small hills" at position 69 ° 21′S 02 ° 14′W, ca. 30 km off the coast of Queen Maud Land.
In the period 1927–1937, the businessman Lars Christensen, who engaged in extensive whaling in the Southern Ocean, equipped a total of nine expeditions to explore whale deposits outside what is later known as Queen Maud Land. The expeditions also carried out surveys of the coast and parts of the mainland, among other things by means of aerial photography. During the expeditions, Bouvet Island, Peter I Øy and Queen Maud's Land (contemporary writing form) were declared Norwegian territory. On 14 January 1939, Queen Maud Land was officially annexed by Norway, through a Storting decision.
Germany claimed part of Queen Maud Land between 20 ° E and 10 ° W from 19 January 1939. The area was called Neuschwabenland, but the Norwegian claim was delivered only weeks before the German claim.
The Norwegian annexation was an urgent action, as the well-known Norwegian polar researcher Adolf Hoel had via a German acquaintance's wife heard that Germany had quietly sent a scientific expedition with the ship "Swabia", with the aim of claiming this area. Hoel immediately contacted Prime Minister Johan Nygaardsvold and Foreign Minister Halvdan Koht, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs commissioned Hoel to provide documentation of Norwegian activity in Antarctica. A few days before the German expedition arrived, the Norwegian government decided on 14 January 1939 to annex the Atlantic coast of the Antarctic continent and gave the area the name Queen Maud's Land. Germany did not protest against the Norwegian annexation, and thus Queen Maud Land is today a Norwegian biland (not part of the Kingdom of Norway).
In 1959, twelve nations signed the International Antarctic Treaty, which would prevent the continent from being used militarily and secure the area for scientific purposes. Article IV of the Treaty clarifies that, as a result of the Treaty, Norway does not state any of its existing territorial claims, but the signatories also undertake not to assert their claims.
Queen Maud Land is located between 20 ° west and 45 ° east and includes Crown Princess Märtha Kyst, Princess Astrid Kyst, Princess Ragnhild Kyst, Prince Harald Kyst, Crown Prince Olav Kyst and the polar plateau, in Norwegian often called King Håkon VII Vidde, while it is internationally accepted the name is the Antarctic Plateau. From the glaciers outside the coastline, the landscape of mighty glaciers gradually rises to over 1000 meters. There are several areas with towering mountains and nunataker, the highest rising above 3000 masl. From west to east, Vestfjella, Heimefrontfjella and Borgmassivet on Maudheimvidda, Gjelsvikfjella, Mühlig-Hofmannfjella and Wohlthatmassivet in Fimbulheimen, Sør-Rondane and Belgicafjella are the most prominent mountain ranges.
The highest point is the Valkyrie Cathedral (Dome F, Dome Fuji) at 3810 masl. in the eastern part of King Håkon VII Vidde, while the highest mountain is Jøkulkyrkja with 3148 masl.
Three mighty glaciers drain this part of East Antarctica. At 20 ° west, Stancomb-Willsstraumen flows westwards over Brunt iceberg. The border between Borgmassivet and Gjelsvikfjella and is