January 20, 2022

The Treaty of Kiel concluded by the Treaty of Kiel of 1814, was a peace treaty entered into between the Swedes' heir to the throne Karl Johan and the Danish-Norwegian king Frederik VI in the then Danish city of Kiel on 14 January 1814. The agreement ended the Napoleonic Wars in the Nordic countries. the ally was to hand over the kingdom of Norway to the king of Sweden, and not to the state of Sweden. In return, the Danish king was to receive the Swedish Pomerania and Rügen as well as 1 million riksdaler. The agreement ended 350 years of almost continuous Swedish struggle for dominance in the Nordic countries, and almost fifteen years of purposeful Swedish work to subjugate Norway through warfare. For Denmark, Kielfreden marked the final defeat in a major political attempt to balance neutrality between Great Britain and France, where the Swedes' heir to the throne Karl Johan finally succeeded in using the war effort against Napoleon to win Norway. The Danes did not finally get peace with the Kiel Treaty - they had to enter into their own peace agreements with each of the allied great powers. The peace agreement with Russia was signed in Hanover on February 8, but Tsar Alexander refused to ratify it and kept almost 60,000 soldiers in Danish Holstein until mid-November. Frederik VI was at the Congress of Vienna until June 1815, and tried in vain to get the great powers to force Sweden to give up Pomerania and pay Norway's share of the state debt. On the other hand, he succeeded in getting the tsar's ratification of the Hanover peace and withdrawal from Holstein. In June 1815, Frederik VI also secured an exchange of Pomerania and Rügen to Prussia, in exchange for the duchy of Lauenburg and 1 million riksdaler. Norway opposed the Treaty of Kiel and declared independence, adopted its own constitution and elected Prince Christian Frederik king. After a short war against the Swedish supremacy, Norway agreed at the Moss Convention on 14 August 1814 to enter into a personnel union with Sweden. On 4 November, the Storting and the Swedish negotiators agreed on the terms, a revised Norwegian constitution was adopted, and King Karl XIII of Sweden was elected King of Norway. The Kiel Treaty was understood differently and used to promote national interests. The Danish king broke the treaty when he implemented a plan to avoid Norway's incorporation into Sweden. The Norwegian elite broke the treaty's relatively clear intention when it refused to pay the Norwegian part of Denmark-Norway's joint debt. And the Swedes broke the treaty when they refused to take part in the payment of the Norwegian debt. The treaty was dictated by Karl Johan, and even Norwegian historians have admitted that the Swedes were the party that most complied with the letter of the agreement, while the Danish king most actively opposed it. This concerned the king's right to transfer sovereignty over Norway to the king of Sweden, which meant that Norway was to be a separate kingdom, and not least whether Norway was bound by the agreement at all and obliged to unite with Sweden. From a European point of view, the Treaty of Kiel was just one of many agreements in 1814-15 that drew new borders on the map of Europe. From a Norwegian point of view, the agreement put the whole question of Norway's sovereignty at stake, until superior Swedish troops put an end to real Norwegian independence in the summer of 1814. The Treaty of Kiel, the Moss Convention, the Constitution and the Reichstag constituted four ambiguous documents which in 1814-15 established Norway's status in the union between the two kingdoms. For a long time, the Swedes regarded the Kiel Treaty as the union's only legal basis and based it on Moss and the National Act. In the union disputes of the 1880s, some Swedish jurists and conservative politicians believed that the Kiel Treaty established Sweden's sovereignty over Norway, while the Moss Convention was only a Swedish consent for their Norwegian subjects to implement the Kiel Treaty's legal basis and establish the union by the November Constitution. of this. Other Swedish

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