List of German-Roman monarchs


August 13, 2022

At the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the Frankish Empire was divided into three. One was the East Frankish Empire, which later became the German-Roman Empire. Otto I. followed in Charlemagne's footsteps and restored imperial dignity in the East Frankish kingdom, and is thus regarded as the founder of the German-Roman Empire. The kings were chosen by the Electors, and bore the title Romanorum Rex (Roman King), and after being crowned by the Pope in Rome the title Romanorum Imperator (Roman Emperor). After Maximilian I, the formal coronation in Rome was omitted, as the regent considered himself powerful enough to take the title himself. Not all kings were crowned emperor. Predecessors – List of Roman emperors, List of Frankish kings Successors – List of Austrian emperors, List of German emperors. See also West Francia, List of French kings and emperors, Middle Kingdom (Lotharii Regnum) List of kings of Prussia, Regents of Bohemia, Regents of Hungary, List of Dutch monarchs, Regents of Saxony, List of Polish monarchs, Rulers of Thuringia, List of Belgian monarchs, Ruler of Hanover, List of rulers of Austria, List of Monarchs of Bavaria


Conrad I 911-918

Saxon Ottos

Henrik I the birdcatcher 919-936 Otto I the Great 936-973 Otto II 973-983 Otto III 983-1002 Henry II the Saint 1002–1024

Salic-Frankish rulers

Konrad II 1024–1039 Henry III 1039–1056 Henry IV 1056–1106 Agnes of Poitou, Regent 1056–1062 Rudolf of Rheinfelden, counter-king 1077–1080 Hermann of Salm counter-king 1081–1088 Egbert II of Meissen, counter-king 1088–1090 Konrad of Franken, counter-king 1093–1101 Henry V 1106–1125


Lothar III 1125–1137


Konrad III, 1138–1152 Heinrich-Berengar (Henry VI), co-king 1147–1150 Frederick I Barbarossa, 1152–1190 Henry VI 1190–1197


1198: Double election of two German kings, Philip of Swabia and Otto of Braunschweig, the later Otto IV. Both sought Pope Innocent III's support for their candidacy for the imperial dignity; he chose in 1200/01 to support Otto, in his Decretale Venerabilem he reserved the last word for himself and thus confirmed Otto's claim to the imperial dignity. In 1208, Philip was murdered, and only in 1209 was Otto crowned: Otto IV 1198–1218 Philip of Swabia counter-king 1198–1208


Frederick II, 1212–1250 Henrik Raspe, counter-king 1246–1247 Konrad IV, 1250–1254


William of Holland, 1254–1256) Richard of Cornwall, 1257–1272 Alfonso X of Castile, 1247–1273

Different houses

Rudolph I of Habsburg, 1273–1291 Adolf of Nassau, 1292–1298 Albrecht I of Germany, Habsburg, 1298–1308 Henry VII, 1308–1313 Louis IV, Wittelsbach 1314–1347 Fredrik III the Beautiful, counter-king 1314–1330 Charles IV, 1347–1378 Günther of Schwarzburg, counter-king 1349 Wenzel, 1378–1400 Ruprecht III of the Palatinate, Wittelsbach, 1401–1410 Sigismund 1410–1437 Frederick of Braunschweig, counter-king 1410 Jobst of Moravian counter-king 1410–1411


Albrecht II of Habsburg, 1438–1439 Frederick IV 1440–1493 Maximilian I 1486–1519 Charles V 1519–1556 Ferdinand I 1531–1564 Maximilian II 1562–1576 Rudolph II 1575–1612 Matthias 1612–1619 Ferdinand II 1619–1637 Ferdinand III 1636–1657 Ferdinand IV co-king 1653–1654 Leopold I 1658–1705 Joseph I 1690–1711 Charles VI 1711–1740


Karl VII Albrecht 1742–1745


Frans I Stefan 1745–1765 Joseph II 1761–1790 Leopold II 1790–1792 Francis II 1792–1806