The Nobel Prizes are five prizes instituted by the industrialist Alfred Nobel which are awarded annually by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural, scientific and political progress. Nobel established the prizes through his will in 1895. The five prizes, in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and peace, were first awarded in 1901. The Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, while the other prizes are awarded in Stockholm. Each Nobel Prize is considered the most prestigious prize in its field. According to the will, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences selects the winners of the Nobel Prizes in physics and chemistry. The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska Institutet chooses the winners of the Nobel Prize in Medicine, the Swedish Academy chooses the winners of the Nobel Prize in Literature and the Norwegian Nobel Committee, appointed by the Storting, chooses the winners of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Each recipient, or prize winner, receives a gold medal, a diploma and a sum of money that depends on the Nobel Foundation's income that year. In 2010, each prize was worth 10 million Swedish kroner. The prize cannot be awarded posthumously unless the winner of the prize has died after the award was announced. A prize can also not be shared between more than three people. The average number of winners per prize has increased significantly over the 20th century. In 1968, the Riksbank of Sweden established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Science in memory of Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1969. The prize winners are chosen by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Although it is not a Nobel Prize, it will be awarded during the same event as the four Nobel Prizes in Stockholm.
Alfred Nobel was born on October 21, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, and into a family of engineers. He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1895, Nobel bought Bofors iron and steel mill, which he converted into a large weapons factory. Nobel also invented ballistite, a precursor to many smoke-free military explosives, especially cordite, the British smoke-free gunpowder. Nobel himself was involved in a lawsuit for breach of the patent law with cordite. Nobel made a fortune while he lived, most of it from his 355 inventions of which dynamite is the most famous. In 1888, Nobel had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary entitled The Merchant of Death is Dead in a French Newspaper. However, it was Alfred Nobel's brother Ludvig Nobel who died. The article put Nobel out of control and it worried him about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. 1 In addition, he was inspired by the Austrian author and pacifist Bertha von Suttner, with whom he became acquainted in 1875, when she worked for a week as his secretary. The exchange of letters between the two shows how she inspired him to get involved in the peace cause.10. December 1896 Alfred Nobel died in his villa in Sanremo, Italy after a cerebral hemorrhage, 63 years old. , chemistry, peace, medicine, and literature. Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, and the last was written a year before he died and signed in the Swedish-Norwegian club in Paris on November 27, 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kroner (approx. 186,000 $ 000 in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The administrators of the Nobel will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of the Nobel's fortune and organize the awarding of prizes. Following Nobel's instructions, a Norwegian Nobel Committee was established to award the Peace Prize. approved in April 1897. Shortly afterwards, the other organs