Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Article

October 17, 2021

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is one of the five original Nobel Prizes. It is the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences that each year at the beginning of October decides who has won this year's Nobel Prize. The prize has been awarded since 1901. Medal and diploma The prize consists of a medal, a diploma and a sum of money. The medal is in gold (until 1979 in 23 carats, then in 18 carats) and is 66 mm in diameter. On the obverse, the medal bears Alfred Nobel's left - handed portrait. To the left is the inscription «ALFR • / NOBEL» over two lines and to the right over six lines the inscription «NAT • / MDCCC / XXXIII / OB • / MDCCC / XCVI» (Nobel's year of birth 1833 and year of death 1896). The reverse carries a motif in which a female figure with a document roll reveals another female figure with a horn of plenty. The figures represent science and nature. The motif is flanked by the sunken inscription «NATURA» on the left and «SCIENTIA» on the right. It is all surrounded by the inscription «INVENTAS • VITAM • IUVAT EXCOLUISSE • PER • ARTES» in the upper arch and «REG • ACAD • SCIENT • SUEC •» in the lower arch. The inscription in the upper arch is a quote from Vergil's work Æneiden: "inventas vitt juvat excoluisse per artes", which means "and those who improved life on earth with their newfound skills". The medal was designed by Erik Lindberg in 1902. The medal for the prizes in physics and chemistry is identical, while the medals for medicine and literature have identical adverse, while different reverse. The medal for the Peace Prize has its own design of both adverse and reverse. Copies of the medal exist in silver and gilded silver, including in museums and collections. For the prize winners' family members, up to five medals are made in gilded bronze. The medals are made at the Swedish Mint. The diploma for the prize winners in medicine consists of two parts, a page with the details of the prize and the prize winner written on it and an artistic picture page, which is designed each year by a new artist.

Prize winners

The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff from the Netherlands in 1901. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a sum of money that has varied over the years. In 1901, Röntgen received 150,782 Swedish kroner, which corresponds to approx. 7,730,000 Swedish kroner in December 2007. In 2008, the prize was awarded to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien, who shared the prize money of 10,000,000 Swedish kroner. The prize is awarded in Stockholm during an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death in 1896. At least 25 recipients have received the Nobel Prize for contributions in the field of organic chemistry, more than any other field in chemistry. Two winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Germans Richard Kuhn (1938) and Adolf Butenandt (1939), were refused by the German government to receive the prize. They later received the Nobel Prize diploma and the medal, but not the prize money. Frederick Sanger is the only recipient to have won the prize twice, in 1958 and 1980. Two others have also won the Nobel Prize in other fields; Marie Curie (physics in 1903 and chemistry in 1911) and Linus Carl Pauling (chemistry in 1954 and peace in 1962). As of 2010, the prize has been awarded to 159 people. There have been eight years where the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has not been awarded.

References

External links

Official website (en) Nobel Prize in Chemistry - category of images, video or audio on Commons Complete chronological list of the Chemistry Prize - The Nobel Institute

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