Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five prizes established by the Swede Alfred Nobel in his will of 27 November 1895. It is awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The recipient of the annual prize is traditionally announced at the beginning of October, while the actual award ceremony takes place on Nobel's death anniversary on 10 December. The ceremony has taken place in Oslo City Hall since 1990. A separate concert will also be held in connection with the award ceremony, the Nobel Peace Prize concert, in which the winner and prominent guests will participate. The Nobel Peace Prize is considered to be the world's most prestigious peace prize.
The other Nobel Prizes are awarded by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm. At Alfred Nobel's death on December 10, 1896, Norway and Sweden were still in union, with Sweden alone controlling foreign policy.
Alfred Nobel made three demands on Peace Prize winners, and they only needed to meet one of them. There are two clear terms: "reduction of military forces" and "arrangement of peace congresses". And then there is a third wording that the Nobel Committee has occasionally chosen to interpret relatively broadly: "the brotherhood of nations". Many awards have been controversial, and it has been claimed by lawyers and the Nobel family that the will is not followed.
Nomination and selection
The nomination deadline for the Nobel Peace Prize is 1 February each year.
Nominations must be promoted by a natural person with the right to nominate; institutions cannot nominate, and all nominations are therefore individual and not on behalf of institutions. Nominees have the right to nominate members of national assemblies, government members and members of the Interparliamentary Union, members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the International Court of Justice and the Institute of International Law, scientific staff at professor or associate professor level in history, social sciences, law, philosophy, theology and religious studies. and university directors (or equivalent positions) as well as directors of peace research institutes and institutes of international politics. Nomination rights also apply to persons who have previously received the Peace Prize and board members of institutions that have received the Peace Prize. In addition, there are current and former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, as well as the committee's former consultants. Committee members may nominate no later than the first committee meeting after 1 February.
The Secretary of the Nobel Committee, who is also the director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute, chooses in consultation with the committee candidates worthy of being placed on the "shortlist". It consists of about 20 people and organizations that are considered in more detail. The Nobel Committee's experts write statements about those that the committee members will read. The Norwegian Nobel Committee then makes the decision on who will be this year's winner. The discussions in the committee meetings are not reproduced in the minutes. Only the name of the winner / winners is recorded, and the statements and protocols are secret for 50 years.
Medal, diploma and cash prize
Both the Peace Prize and the Nobel Committee are based on liberal internationalism, a political ideology that originated in Britain in the 19th century and emerged in Norway in the 1890s.
The first Peace Prize was awarded in 1901 to Frédéric Passy and Henri Dunant. The recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a cash prize that varies from year to year. The first prize was 150,782 Swedish kroner, while in 2008, when Martti Ahtisaari was awarded the prize, the prize was 10 million Swedish kroner. As of 2019, the Peace Prize has been awarded 100 times - the prize was not awarded in 1914, 1915, 1916, 1918, 1923, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1948, 1955, 1956, 1966, 1967 and 1972. Of the 100 prizes, 68 have been awarded to one recipient, 30 prizes have been shared between two recipients and two prizes (1994 and 2011) have been awarded between three recipients. In total, there have been 134 recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize, of which 107