November 28, 2021
The Kingdom of Norway (Nynorsk: Norway, Northern Sámi: Norga, Lule Sámi: Vuodna, Southern Sámi: Nöörje, Kven: Norja) is a Nordic, European country and an independent state west of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Geographically, the country is long and narrow. Norway's well-known fjords are located on the elongated coast towards the North Atlantic. The Kingdom of Norway includes the mainland (mainland with adjacent islands within the baseline), Jan Mayen and Svalbard. With these two Arctic areas, Norway covers a land area of 385,000 km2 and has a population of just over five million (2016). Mainland Norway borders Sweden to the east, Finland and Russia to the northeast. Norway is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, where Harald V has been king and head of state since 1991, and Jonas Gahr Støre (Labor Party) has been prime minister since 2021. Norway is a unitary state, with two administrative levels under the state: counties and municipalities. The Sami part of the population has, through the Sami Parliament and the Finnmark Act, to a certain extent autonomy and influence over traditionally Sami areas. Although Norway has rejected membership of the European Union through two referendums, Norway has close ties to the union through the EEA agreement, and through NATO with the United States. Norway is a significant contributor to the United Nations (UN), and has participated with soldiers in several foreign operations with a mandate from the UN. Norway is among the states that have participated since the founding of the UN, NATO, the Council of Europe, the OSCE and the Nordic Council, and in addition to these are members of the EEA, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and part of the Schengen area. Norway is rich in many natural resources such as oil, gas, minerals, timber, seafood, fresh water and hydropower. Since the beginning of the 20th century, these natural conditions have given the country the opportunity for an increase in wealth that few other countries have benefited from, and Norwegians have per. 2017 the world's third highest average income, measured in GDP per. inhabitant. The petroleum industry accounts for about 14% of Norway's gross domestic product per capita. 2018. Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and gas per capita outside the Middle East. However, the number of employees associated with this industry decreased from about 232,000 in 2013 to 207,000 in 2015. In Norway, these natural resources have been distributed among the fairly large population. The country maintains a welfare model in line with the other Nordic countries. Important service areas such as health and higher education are state-funded, and the country has a comprehensive welfare system for its inhabitants. Public expenditure in 2018 is approx. 50% of GDP, and the majority of these expenditures are related to education, health care, social security and welfare. Since 2001, the UN has ranked Norway as the world's best country to live in. From 2010, Norway is also ranked at the top of the EIU's democracy index. Norway is in third place on the UN's World Happiness Report for the years 2016-2018, behind Finland and Denmark, a report that was published in March 2019. The majority of the population is Nordic. In the last couple of years, immigration has accounted for more than half of the population growth. The five largest minority groups are Norwegian-Poles, Lithuanians, Norwegian-Swedes, Norwegian-Syrians including Syrian Kurds and Norwegian-Pakistanis.