Slovakia

Article

December 8, 2021

Slovakia (Slovak: Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika), is a landlocked state in Central Europe. The country has approximately 5.4 million inhabitants and covers an area of ​​49,035 km². The capital is Bratislava. The inhabitants of the country are mostly Slovaks who speak the Slavic language Slovak, but there is a Hungarian minority in the south of the country along the border with Hungary. Slovak is the official language. Slovakia is relatively young as an independent state. The country became independent in 1993 when Czechoslovakia was dissolved. Throughout history, the area has largely been subject to more powerful neighbors, such as Stormähren, the Kingdom of Hungary and Austria-Hungary. Since independence, Slovakia has been a stable democracy with strong economic growth. The country joined the European Union and NATO in 2004 and has adopted the euro as its currency. Slovakia is part of the Schengen area.

Natural Geography

Slovakia is an inland state in Central Europe. The area is 49 035 km². In the north the country borders Poland, in the east to Ukraine, in the south to Hungary, in the west to Austria and in the northwest to the Czech Republic. The country lies between 47 ° and 50 ° north latitude and 16 ° and 23 ° east longitude. The distance from the extremes in the east and west is around 416 km, from north to south 208 km. The landscape is dominated by the Western Carpathians with forested mountains, hills and valleys over much of the country, especially in the north and northwest. Here are the Little Carpathians, the White Carpathians and the Tatras. The mountains are highest in the north, where Gerlachovský štít in the High Tatras is the country's highest point with 2655 meters above sea level. In the middle of the country is the Low Tatras, while Malá Fatra (Little Fatra) and Veľká Fatra (Big Fatra) characterize the landscape in central and western parts of the country. The Slovak ore mountains in the east of the country testify to mineral deposits. Here is also the 800 km² Slovenský kras which is Europe's largest karst formation. The formation is excavated with gorges, caves and caves. Here is the Dobšinská ice cave, which has a 20 meter thick ice floor. The height of the mountains decreases the further south you go. By the Danube in the southwest, the Pannonian plain stretches with fertile plains into Slovakia. Also by and Tisza southeast of the country there is fertile plains. 40% of the land is covered by forest, 11% is grassland and 29% of the area is arable land. In the mountain areas, pine and spruce are the most common tree species, while the lowlands have oak, birch and linden. In the forests there are red foxes, hares, deer, bears, lynxes, squirrels, wild cats and muskrat. Wild boar and wolves live in the mountain areas.96% of the area is in the Danube basin, the other 4% in the Vistula basin. The Danube and the tributary Ipeľ form the border with Hungary. Váh, Hron, Nitra, Ondava, Laborec and Hornád are other important rivers.

Climate

Slovakia has a continental climate. This means hot summers with high humidity and cold and dry winters. The annual rainfall is 800 mm.

Population

At the 2011 census, Slovakia had a population of 5,397,036.

Language

The Constitution makes Slovak the official language. In areas south of the country, along the border with Hungary, Hungarian is also used.

Ethnic groups

The majority of Slovakia's population is Slovak (80.7%), while a slightly lower proportion (78.6%) state that they have Slovak as their mother tongue. The Hungarians are the largest minority. 9.4% have Hungarian as their mother tongue (2011). The Roma are the second largest minority with 2% of the population at the 2011 census. Other national minorities are Czechs (0.6%), Ruthenians (0.6%), Moravians (0.1%), Germans (0.1%). ), Ukrainians (0.1%) and Poles (0.1%) (Census, 2011).

Religion

The Constitution states that the state is not linked to any ideology or religion (§ 1). It guarantees freedom of religion and belief (§ 24, § 13). The population is mostly Christian. 62% belong to the Catholic Church (census in 2011) and 3.8% belong to the Slovak Greek Catholic Church. 5.9% are Protestants belonging to The Gospel

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