Great Britain


November 28, 2021

The United Kingdom (English: United Kingdom, abbreviation UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, is a European country and a state in Western Europe. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy comprising the four kingdoms of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom makes up most of the archipelago The British Isles and includes the island of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the island of Ireland.

Natural Geography

England consists mostly of lowlands, with slightly more mountainous terrain in the northwest (Cumbria Mountains in the Lake District) and north (Pennines), and limestone ridges in the Peak District. You will also find several areas with low limestone ridges, such as Purbeck, Cotswolds, Lincolnshire and more. There are no peaks above 1000 meters in England. The most important rivers are the Thames and Severn, and the fjord Humber is often included in this group. The largest urban area is Greater London, which is also the capital. Through the Channel Tunnel there is a land connection to France. Scotland has a varied geography, with lowlands in the south and east and highlands in the north and west. The highest mountain in Britain is in the Scottish Highlands; Ben Nevis rises 1344 masl There are many long and deep fjords and lakes. More than 800 islands belong to Scotland, including the Hebrides, Orkney Islands and Shetland. Largest city is Glasgow, while the capital is Edinburgh. Wales consists mostly of mountain terrain. The highest peak is Snowdon, at 1085 masl. North of the mainland is the island of Anglesey. The capital, Cardiff, is the largest city in the south of Wales. Northern Ireland consists mostly of hilly landscapes. The largest cities are the capital Belfast and Derry (Londonderry). The UK's largest lake, Lough Neagh, is located in Northern Ireland and has a surface area of ​​388 km². It is estimated that there are just under 1,100 small islands or islets belonging to the United Kingdom. Some of these are artificial crannogs, which were created to make it easier to defend the home during turbulent times.


At the April 2001 census, the United Kingdom had a population of 58,789,194. This was the third highest in the EU after Germany and France and the 21st highest in the world. In 2014, it was estimated that the number had increased to about 64 million. The population density is among the highest in the world. About a quarter of the population lives in the south-east of England, including over 7 million in London. The degree of illiteracy is just under 1%, which is attributed to the introduction of general primary school in 1870 and general secondary school in 1900. In Scotland, general primary school was introduced in 1696. Schooling is compulsory from five to sixteen years of age. The British Isles have historically been exposed to several invasions and waves of migration, especially from Scandinavia and the European continent. Before the arrival of the Romans, the islands were inhabited by Celts, and there were remnants of pre-Celtic peoples of unknown origin. The Roman occupation lasted for several centuries, after which Anglo-Saxons and Vikings took over as dominant groups. In 1066 came the Normans. In recent times, many immigrants have come to the islands, especially from the former British colonies, but also from most other countries. Today's British can be said to constitute a mixture of pre-Celtic, Celtic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Norse, Norman and Scandinavian origins, with a significant element of non-European peoples.


The dominant language in the United Kingdom is English, which is a West Germanic language. The oldest form of a separate English language is called Old English, followed by Middle English and then modern English. There are significant dialect differences within the English language. These are often divided into the main groups Hiberno English (Northern Ireland), Scottish English, Welsh English and "English English". There are also several Celtic languages ​​that are native to the islands:

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