January 20, 2022

Sweden (Swedish: Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige) is a Nordic country located in the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. It has borders with Norway in the west and Finland in the northeast. The country is connected to Denmark in the southwest by the Øresund connection. With an area of ​​almost 450,000 km², Sweden is the fifth largest country in Europe, and from January 2017 it has a population of over 10 million inhabitants. The country's capital and largest city is Stockholm, with approximately 2,100,000 inhabitants, followed by Gothenburg and Malmö. The northern part of the country is covered by forest. Large amounts of iron are extracted there, and paper is produced from the trees of the forests. The central part of the country has fertile soils towards the coast and is the country's industrial center - especially the metallurgical industry. The southern part of the country is primarily involved in agricultural production: wheat, potatoes, sugar beet and cattle production. It is also the most densely populated part of the country. Sweden became an independent empire in the 16th century and during the great power era in the 17th century, the country controlled most of the coastline in the Baltic Sea. In several wars with Russia, Sweden lost what today constitutes the Baltic countries, and the eastern part of the empire came under Russian rule after the Finnish war of 1808-1809. Sweden's last war was in 1814 where the country invaded Norway to force the country into a personnel union. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a highly developed economy. Sweden is formally neutral, but joined the EU in 1995.


The name Sweden is first documented in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf, in a manuscript from the 1000s, with the name form Swēorice. From the end of the 13th century, it has been documented in the form Swerike along the Gulf of Bothnia. It signified the kingdom of the Swedes in the area of ​​Svealand. Towards the end of the 15th century the name had changed to Swerighe, in the 17th century it was changed to Swerghe and Swirghe, Gustav II Adolf used the form Swirge, today the late medieval form Sweden is used.

Natural Geography

Sweden is located in northern Europe, on the eastern part of the Scandinavian peninsula and in terms of surface area, the country is the fifth largest in Europe. The country borders Norway in the west (much of the border runs along the Scandinavian mountains), Finland in the northeast (Muonioälven and Torneälven), and Denmark in the southwest via the Øresund connection. In addition to the mainland, there are the large islands of Gotland and Öland. In the part of the country north of the Arctic Circle, the sun does not set during the summer, and the night lasts around the clock in winter. The country also has maritime borders with Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany and Russia (Kaliningrad). The surrounding sea areas are the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Sea in the east and south, as well as the Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Sound in the southwest. Sweden forms part of the geographical area of ​​the Nordic region.

Landscape types and geology

The terrain is mostly flat or with low hills, except in the Scandinavian mountains along the border with Norway. Since the 18th century, the national border has followed the watershed in these mountains quite accurately. The rivers in the north thus usually flow eastwards, and in many cases they manage to become quite wide. East of Sweden are the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia, which gives the country a long coastline. To the west is Kjølen, the Scandinavian mountain range that separates Sweden from Norway. The southern part of the country is cultivated, with more and more forests the further you go north in the country. The population follows the reverse pattern, with a high population density in the south, especially around the valley by Lake Mälaren and in the Øresund region. Further north, the population density is lower.

Water and watercourses

Sweden's highest mountain is called Kebnekaise and is 2,111 masl. Sweden's 10 largest lakes in descending order of magnitude: Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren, Hjälmaren, Storsjön, Siljan, Torneträsk, Hornavan, Uddj

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