July 6, 2022

Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe. The country's capital is Budapest, and it borders Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. Hungary has approximately 10 million inhabitants (as of May 2009), and has a surface area of ​​approx. 93,000 km². Large parts of the Hungarian landscape are dominated by plains (The Hungarian Plain and the Little Hungarian Plain), with some mountains in the Carpathians in the north. The river Danube divides the country in two, and together with the tributaries Tisza and Drava constitute Hungary's most important watercourses. Hungary's history dates back to the end of the first millennium AD, and shortly after the turn of the millennium the country became an independent kingdom under Stefan I. In the Middle Ages, the Hungarian throne fell to the Habsburgs, and Hungary was in union with neighboring Austria until the end of the first world war. After World War II, the country came under Soviet influence, and was a communist one-party state until 1989. Since then, Hungary has been a democratic republic, joining the EU in 2004. They have been members of the NATO military alliance since 1999.

Natural Geography

Large parts of Hungary consist of plains, in Hungarian puszta. In prehistoric times, the Hungarian plains were under water. When the water receded, large deposits were left. Together with loose soil that has since been blown up, this soil constitutes a very fertile area for agricultural production. Two thirds of Hungary is cultivated land. First and foremost, wheat and maize are grown, but there is also a large production of fruit, sugar beets, vegetables and hemp. Hungary also has an extensive wine production, including in the Hungarian wine regions Tokaj and Eger. Budapest is the largest city in the country, with over two million inhabitants. The old town of Buda is located on the western bank of the Danube, and the more modern district of Pest on the eastern bank. The city was occupied by the Turks from 1541 to 1686. The city was badly damaged during World War II and the uprising in 1956. Hungary's largest lake is Balaton.


Hungary has a continental climate, with cold, humid winters and hot summers. The average annual temperature is 9.7 ° C. The temperature fluctuates between approx. 38 ° C in summer to −22 ° C in winter. The temperature in summer is usually between 27 to 32 ° C, and in winter +5 to -15 ° C. The average annual rainfall is approx. 600 millimeters. A small part of the country in the south around Pécs enjoys a Mediterranean climate. The topographical delimitation of the Carpathian Basin means that Hungary is exposed to drought, and the effects of the greenhouse effect are already being felt. The general opinion, which is shared by many researchers, has become increasingly drier in recent decades, and periods of drought have become relatively common, summers have become warmer and winters milder. For this reason, snowy winters have become more rare than before. The general opinion is also that Hungary's weather pattern is about to change from four to only two seasons, as the spring and autumn periods are getting shorter and shorter, and in some years are completely absent. This supposed trend was unexpectedly reversed in 2006 when the country's two largest rivers, the Danube and the Tisza, crossed their banks at the same time, leading to hundreds of homes becoming uninhabitable despite intense efforts to reinforce the dikes along most of the rivers with sandbags (using of university students and the Hungarian Home Guard ("Honvédség"). Most of Hungary is covered by agricultural land, but there are some remnants of its original forests, mainly in the mountain regions and in the national parks.




In the ninth century, Madari tribes migrated westward from present-day Russia. Some of these settled between the Danube and the Tisza. The tribes were united in one kingdom by Stefan I in the year 1001. The kingdom's heyday was in the 14th and 15th centuries, and many Germans also settled here. In the 16th century, the majority