Latin

Article

August 13, 2022

Latin, Latin (Latin lingua latina, sermo latinus, latinum, latinitas) - an Indo-European language from the Latin Latin subgroup of Italian languages. Latin was probably formed in the 2nd millennium BC as the language of the inhabitants of Lazio in central Italy. She was the mother tongue of the Romans. The Latin alphabet was used to write it, which is the most widely used alphabet in the world today. It became the official language of the Roman Republic and later of the Roman Empire. During this period, the Romanization of the Empire took place, and Latin was the language of the inhabitants of many Roman provinces in Europe and North Africa. In everyday speech, it ceased to be used after the fall of the Empire in the west, although in most European countries it was still used as an official, liturgical and literary language. Until the 18th century, Latin was widely used in Europe as the language of international communication, science, culture and art. In Poland, it was the official language of the partitions. The liturgy of the Catholic Church was celebrated almost exclusively in Latin until the Second Vatican Council. Today, Latin is still used, albeit to a limited extent, in many areas of science. Numerous publications are published in Latin, and there is also a Latin-language Wikipedia. Scientific and technical terminology is usually derived from Latin. Latin is used in media and mass culture. During the Finnish Presidency (1996 and 2006), official documents of the European Union were published in Latin. It also remains the official language of the Vatican City State. Knowledge of Latin is considered essential in understanding the history of European cultural heritage, which goes back to antiquity. Although it is mostly anti-Greek, we know it through the Romans, who showed the ability and willingness to assimilate the achievements of the Greeks in their own speech and then surpass the masters. These achievements are the basis of the Latin tradition in literature and science, law and religion - reaching through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance to the eighteenth century, and sometimes even to the present day. According to Leibniz, Latin was the only language that crossed the boundaries of time and space (lingua universalis et durabilis ad posteritatem). It enables contact with the masters of the past, an introduction to the timeless res publica litterarum. After all, this language was written by, among others, Cicero, Tacitus, Hieronim, Augustine, Einhard, Thomas Aquinas, Dante, Petrarch, Erasmus, Luther, Copernicus, Kepler and Newton. There is no consensus among linguists as to whether Latin is a living, dead or a vegetative language. It is true that it is no longer the mother tongue for anyone, so it does not undergo spontaneous changes in inflection or vocabulary, typical of living languages, but its knowledge has not expired. It is taught in schools and colleges around the world. It is regulated by the Pontifical Academy of Latin Language, which extends the scope of the vocabulary for documents issued by the Holy See. Latin inflection, syntax and vocabulary had a significant impact on the development of all European vernacular languages, including Polish. Romance languages ​​developed from the dialects spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire. Latin lives in modern languages, and its tangible root lies not only in the old, well-known words such as "matura" (from maturare - to grow up) and "university" (from universitas - universality, universality), but also in neologisms, such as " digital ”(from digitus - finger),“ discourse ”(from discursus - bustle) or“ globalization ”(from globe - sphere). It is also often hidden in seemingly native Polish words, such as "cemetery" (from coemeterium - from the Greek κοιμητήρ�