Łeonid Krawczuk

Article

May 28, 2022

Łeonid Makarowycz Krawczuk, Ukrainian Леонід Макарович Кравчук (born January 10, 1934 in Żytyń Wielki, died May 10, 2022) - Ukrainian politician and communist activist. In 1990–1991, chairman of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR and the Supreme Council of Ukraine, President of Ukraine in 1991–1994, deputy of several terms of office of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR and the Supreme Council of Ukraine. Hero of Ukraine (2001).

Curriculum vitae

Youth

He was born to a peasant Ukrainian family in the Volyn voivodeship in Poland. His father, Makar, served in the Polish cavalry. He died in 1944, fighting in the ranks of the Red Army on the Eastern Front, he was buried in a mass grave in Belarus.

Education and activity until 1991

In 1958 he graduated from the University of Kiev. In the years 1967–1970, he studied at the Academy of Social Sciences at the Central Committee of the CPSU. There he obtained the degree of candidate of economic sciences on the basis of a thesis on the essence of profit in socialism and its role in collective agricultural production. From 1958 he was an activist in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In the years 1960–1967 he was the head of the department for agitation and propaganda of the regional committee of the CPSU in Chernivtsi. In the years 1981–1991 he was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine. In the 1980s, he was a deputy of the 10th and 11th term of office, and in 1990 he became a deputy of the 12th term of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR. In the years 1990–1991, a member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the KPU. From July 1990 he was the chairman of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR (then the Supreme Council of Ukraine). He supported independence activities and after the declaration of the creation of an independent Ukrainian state on December 5, 1991, he became the first president of Ukraine (he won the elections on December 1, defeating, among others, the leader of the opposition People's Movement of Ukraine for Reconstruction, Vyacheslav Chornovil).

President of Ukraine

On December 8, 1991, Łeonid Krawczuk and representatives of Russia and Belarus (Borys Yeltsin and Stanisłau Szuszkiewicz) signed the Belovezhskaya agreement on the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. On August 22, 1992, at a ceremonial sitting of the Ukrainian parliament in Kiev, the last president of the Ukrainian People's Republic in exile, Mykola Plavjuk, handed over to him the state insignia, recognizing that Ukraine, proclaimed in 1991, became the legal successor of the Ukrainian People's Republic. In 1992, he supported Archbishop Filaret in his activities aimed at establishing the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kiev Patriarchate. In 1993, he signed agreements on the fate of the Black Sea Fleet and nuclear weapons located on the territory of Ukraine after the collapse of the USSR. In the same year, he took part in the celebrations dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the great famine in Ukraine. In the presidential elections in 1994, he ran as an independent candidate. In the first round, he took first place, gaining 9,977,766 votes (38.36%). In the second round he lost to Łeonid Kuchma, gaining 12,112,442 votes (45.06%).

Activities after the presidency

From 1994 to 2006 he sat continuously as a deputy in the Supreme Council. From 1998 to 2009 he was a member of the United Social Democratic Party of Ukraine. In 1999 he became a co-chairman of the All-Ukrainian Union of Democratic Forces "Zgoda". In the presidential elections in 2004, he actively supported the candidacy of Viktor Yanukovych. In November 2004, he was stripped of the honorary doctorate awarded to him in 1999 by the Kiev-Mohyla Academy, on the grounds of "a non-civic position during the Orange Revolution." In the parliamentary elections in 2006 he headed the list of the Opposition Bloc "No Yes!", Which did not reach the election threshold. In 2009, he publicly summoned then-president Victor Ju