October 17, 2021
Adolf Hitler (pronounced [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]; born April 20, 1889 in Braunau am Inn, died April 30, 1945 in Berlin) - German politician of Austrian origin, chancellor of the Reich from January 30, 1933, leader and chancellor of the Reich (German: Der Führer und Reichskanzler) from August 2, 1934 until his death; founder and dictator of the Third Reich, leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), ideologist of National Socialism; a war criminal, responsible for crimes against humanity. Recognized as personally responsible for the racial policy of the Third Reich and the deaths of millions of people killed during his reign - including the Holocaust. He was born in Austria - then part of Austria-Hungary - and grew up near Linz. In 1913 he moved to Germany. In 1919 he joined the German Workers' Party (DAP). In 1923, he attempted to seize power as a result of a failed coup in Munich and was imprisoned for five years. There he wrote the first volume of Mein Kampf (My fight). In 1924, with the help of charismatic speeches and Nazi propaganda, he attacked the Treaty of Versailles and promoted pan-Germanism, anti-Semitism and anti-communism. Thanks to this, he gained widespread support. In November 1932, the Nazi party had the most seats in the German Reichstag, but did not have the majority. As a result, no party was able to form a parliamentary majority supporting the candidate for chancellor. Former Chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as chancellor on January 30, 1933. Soon after, the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich began. He sought to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a new deal to counter what he saw as an injustice to the international order dominated by Great Britain and France after World War I. The first six years of his rule resulted in a rapid economic recovery after the Great Depression, the lifting of restrictions imposed on Germany and the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of Germans. He was looking for a Lebensraum (lit. "living space") for the German people in Eastern Europe. He was closely involved in military operations during the war. The aggressive foreign policy conducted under his leadership and the attack on Poland on September 1, 1939 led to the start of World War II by Germany, as a result of which approximately 50 million people were killed. In June 1941, he ordered the invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German and Axis forces had occupied most of Europe and North Africa. After 1941, the situation was reversed, and in 1945 the Allied forces defeated the German army. On April 29, 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun in the Fuhrer's bunker in Berlin. Less than two days later, the couple committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army. Their corpses were burned.