January 23, 2022

Africa - the second largest continent on Earth. It covers 30.37 million km², which is over 20.3% of the total land area of ​​the Earth. The 0 ° meridian, both tropics and the equator pass through it. According to data from 2012, Africa is inhabited by over a billion people, which is 1/7 of the world's population. Africa has the highest birth rate in the world (24 ‰ per year) and is the "youngest" continent on Earth - children (0–14 years) constitute approx. 44% of the population. Africa also has the lowest GDP per capita (US $ 895), the lowest life expectancy (47 years), and the largest number of people infected with HIV (approx. 24.9 million, or approx. 64.3% of those infected worldwide) . Civil wars and other armed conflicts persist in several African countries. The most dangerous hotspots still remain Darfur in Sudan, South Sudan, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Somalia, northern Nigeria, Libya and the Central African Republic. Africa is the least urbanized continent (approx. 39% of the population lives in cities). The largest cities in terms of population are Lagos, Cairo, Kinshasa, Alexandria, Casablanca and Abidjan (not counting the urban complexes of Khartoum and Johannesburg). The largest country - Algeria (2,381,740 km²), the most populous - Nigeria (190 million), the most densely populated - Mauritius (610 people per km²); the smallest - Seychelles (455 km²), the least populated - Seychelles (83 thousand), the least populated - Western Sahara (1 person / km²). In 2020, climate indicators in Africa were characterized by continual warming of temperatures, ever faster sea level rise, extreme weather and climate events such as floods and droughts, and associated devastating effects; The rapid shrinkage of the last remaining glaciers in East Africa, which is expected to completely melt in the near future, signals the threat of imminent and irreversible changes to the Earth's system.

Continent Name

The name "Africa" ​​comes from Latin and means "land of Africa". This name as the name of the continent south of the Mediterranean Sea appeared for the first time in the work De chorographia by Pomponius Meli from 41 AD. Previously, it was defined as the Roman province on this continent. This one was then called "Libya".

Location and Boundaries

Africa is situated on both sides of the equator and on both sides of meridian 0. However, there is no land southwest of the intersection of the equator and meridian 0. The extreme points are: Cape White (37 ° 25′N) Cape Igielny (34 ° 51′S) Almadi (17 ° 33 ′ W) Cape Hafun (51 ° 23′E), and after taking into account the islands, the eastern shore of Socotra (54 ° 28′E). The longitudinal length is 8024.8 km, and the latitudinal length is 7660.6 km. The location of Africa in low latitudes causes the phenomenon of the sun's upwardness at its zenith on the continent, which translates into a much higher possible (theoretical) insolation than it is at higher latitudes (e.g. in Europe). Most of Africa's borders are maritime. There are two oceans around Africa: the Atlantic and the Indian. The only sea of ​​the Atlantic is the Mediterranean Sea that flows from the north, which separates Africa from Europe. The Indian Ocean system includes the Red Sea, which separates Africa from the Arabian Peninsula and the Sinai Peninsula, which belong to Asia. The only land connection with the neighboring continent is the Suez Isthmus. It is crossed by the Suez Canal, which is considered to be the exact delineation of the contractual boundary. Previously, in the place of the canal there was a series of lakes: Manzila, Timsah, Great Bitter Lake, Small Bitter Lake.

Geology and tectonics

Africa lies entirely on the African plate that eats it

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