Alan Mathison Turing (born June 23, 1912 in London, died June 7, 1954 in Wilmslow near Manchester) - British mathematician, cryptologist, creator of the Turing machine concept and one of the founders of computer science. Considered the father of artificial intelligence.
Childhood and youth
His father, Julius Turing, was an Indian Civil Service employee and with his wife Ethel, née Stoney (1881–1976), lived in Chatrapur near Madras in southern India. There, too, Alan Turing was conceived in the fall of 1911. Since the parents of the future mathematician wanted the child to be born in England, they left India and returned to Maida Vale in London. Alan Mathison Turing was born in London on June 23, 1912. Turing had an older brother, John. His father returned to India shortly after his birth, while his mother left there fifteen months later - in mid-September 1913, leaving Alan in the care of the nannies.
His parents enrolled him in St Michael's school when he was 6 years old.
In 1926, Alan Turing entered the Sherborne School in Sherborne, Dorset. The beginning of his training coincided with the general strike in 1926 in Great Britain. However, Turing was very anxious to attend school, and to arrive on his first day of schooling, he would cycle unattended over 60 miles (97 km) from Southampton to school, stopping overnight at an inn. From the very beginning of his studies, he showed great abilities in the field of exact sciences, but he felt bad at the school, which educated the future leadership of the British Empire.
While attending Sherborne School, Turing discovered his homosexual orientation. This led him to reflections that made him abandon his religious thinking, turn into an atheist, and adopt rationalist beliefs.
It was then that he fell in love with Christopher Morcom (English). However, he died shortly later, on February 13, 1930, as a result of complications caused by bovine tuberculosis, acquired after drinking infected cow's milk as a child.
Studies and research work
After Morcom's death, Turing began to work even harder, until in 1931 he was awarded a research fellowship at King's College, Cambridge.
He studied mathematics there from 1931 to 1934, graduating with honors. In 1935, at the age of 22, he defended his doctoral thesis in which he proved the version of the central limit theorem. The commission evaluating the work did not know that the claim had already been proved by Jarl Lindeberg in 1922.
While at Cambridge, Turing wrote his probably most important mathematical work, On Computable Numbers With An Application To The Entscheidungsproblem, or On Computable Numbers and their Applications to the Entscheidungsproblem Problem, the aim of which was to solve the decidability problem, which was presented by David Hilbert in 1928. he introduced an abstract machine capable of executing a programmed mathematical operation, or algorithm. The machine could only execute one specific algorithm, for example, it could square a number, divide, add, subtract. According to Turing, the numbers were to be fed to the typewriter by means of a paper tape similar to a tape with a melody written for pianos. In his work, Turing described many of these machines, which have gained the common name of Turing machines. An extension of this concept was the so-called universal Turing machine, which, depending on the instruction written on the tape, was to perform any operation. Turing reduced the decidability problem to the stop problem, which is whether there is an algorithm that can tell if a program will stop or run indefinitely. He proved that such an algorithm does not exist. Thus, even a universal Turing machine could not identify all the nots