Alaska (pronunciation: / əˈlæskə /) is a state of the United States in the northwest of North America, an exclave of the United States. It borders on the east with Canada, and on the west, by the Bering Strait, with Russia. Mountains dominate, with the highest point in North America which is the Denali peak (McKinley, 6194 m above sea level), as well as highlands and numerous volcanic cones. The Aleutian Islands also belong to the territory. Alaska has the largest area of the United States and the lowest population density. Unlike most states, Alaska is not divided into counties but boroughs, and much of the state is disorganized.
The surface of the state is mountainous. In the south there are Alaska mountains with the highest peak of North America - Denali (1896–2015: McKinley, 6194 m), Saint Elijah's Mountains (Mount St. Elijah, 5489 m), Wrangel Mountains (Mount Bona, 5044 m), in the north Brooks Mountains (Michelson, 2,816 m). In the central part of the state, the plateau is cut by river valleys, while there are lowlands along the coast. The coastline is very well developed; it consists of numerous peninsulas (Alaska, Kenai) and coastal islands (Aleutian Islands, Alexander Archipelago, Kodiak, Nunivak, St. Lawrence Island, Pribyłowa Islands). The area is seismically active, and many mountain peaks are active (including Pavlof, Iliamna) and extinct volcanoes.
In the south, the climate is temperate and cool, and in the far north, it is subpolar. The range of air temperature changes during the year: from −51 ° C in winter to 32 ° C in summer. Winter lasts 9 months and is very frosty, with strong winds blowing at speeds of 100 km / h and snowstorms typical of the tundra zone.
Inland, taiga and tundra, within the range of the Alaskan Current, temperate coniferous rainforests with poplars, alders and willows.
20 peaks and peaks above 4,400 m above sea level:
Denali (McKinley) - 6194 m above sea level, 63 ° 04′09 ″ N 151 ° 00′23 ″ W, the highest point of North America, first ascent: June 7, 1913 - Walter Harper, Henry Karstens, Hudson Stuck and Robert Tatum;
Archdeacons Tower - ~ 6000 m, 63 ° 04′24 ″ N 151 ° 01′14 ″ W, is located 870 m (WNW) from the main peak of Denali;
Denali (North Summit) - 5934 m, 63 ° 05′51 ″ N 151 ° 00′23 ″ W, 2.8 km NNE from Archdeacons Tower, First Ascension: 1910 - Pete Anderson, Billy Taylor;
Peak 18735 - 5710 m, 63 ° 05′52 ″ N 151 ° 02′29 ″ W, is 1.8 km west of the N Peak of Denali;
Mount Saint Elias (Mount Saint Elias, Boundary Peak 186) - 5489 m, 60 ° 17′34 ″ N 140 ° 55′51 ″ W, first ascent: July 31, 1897 - Luigi Amedeo di Savoia d'Abruzzi;
Peak 17400 - ~ 5330 m, 63 ° 05′12 ″ N 150 ° 57′16 ″ W, located 2.9 km (ESE direction) from the northern peak of Denali;
Mount Foraker (main peak) - 5304 m, 62 ° 57′37 ″ N 151 ° 23′59 ″ W, located 23.0 km WSW from Archdeacons Tower, first ascent: August 10, 1934 - T. G. Joe Brown , Charles S. Houston, Chychele Waterston;
Mount Foraker (South Summit) - 5124 m, 62 ° 56′49 ″ N 151 ° 24′32 ″ W, located 1.6 km (SSW direction) from the main peak of Mount Foraker;
Mount Bona - ~ 5060 m, 61 ° 23′08 ″ N 141 ° 44′58 ″ W, located 80.0 km (WNW) from Mount Lucania, first ascent: July 2, 1930 - Allen Carpé, Adolphus Warburton Moore , Andrew Taylor;
Mount Foraker (south-west peak) - ~ 5060 m, 62 ° 57′18 ″ N 151 ° 26′36 ″ W, located 1.8 km (WNW) from the S. the top of Mount Foraker;