Austria

Article

August 13, 2022

Austria (German: Österreich, [ˈøːstɐraɪç] (listen)), the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich, [ʀepuˈbliːk ˈøːstəʀaɪ̯ç] (listen)) - a landlocked state in Central Europe, a federation of nine federal states with the capital in Vienna. Since 1995, Austria belongs to the European Union.

The origin of the name

In German, Österreich from Old High German ôstarrîhhi, meaning "country in the east". In the 9th century, the territory was the eastern part of the Frankish empire, as well as the eastern frontier of German settlement in the territories of the Slavs. During the reign of Charlemagne and the early Middle Ages, this area was called marchia orientalis (East March), which in the local language was adopted as ôstarrîhhi. This word appears for the first time in a document from 996. The names Ostmark (East March) were used by Nazi Germany after the annexation of Austria. Nimsa in Arabic: presumably from the Slavic definition of Germany, through the Turkish language. In Czech, Rakousko: it comes from the border castle Raabs an der Thaya, located in Lower Austria, and in Czech it is called Hrad Rakous. Hence the term passed to the Slovak (Rakúsko) and old Polish (Rakusy) languages.

Geography

The area of ​​Austria is 83,854 km². More than half of the country is in the Alps. The highest peak is Großglockner, reaching 3,797 m above sea level. In the east of Austria there is the Vienna Basin as well as the Little Hungarian Plain with Lake Neusiedl. The Danube flows through Austria (350 km long). The mountain regions are densely covered with forest. 24% of Austria's territory is under protection. The endangered species are chamois, marmots and ibex. Total length of land borders: 2,832 km Germany: 784 km Czech Republic: 632 km Italy: 430 km Hungary: 366 km Slovenia: 330 km Switzerland: 164 km Slovakia: 91 km Liechtenstein: 35 km

National parks

Lake Neusiedl-Seewinkel (Burgenland) National Park - the only park in Central Europe established in the steppe areas. On its territory there is Lake Neusiedl - a typical steppe lake, around areas overgrown with reeds and rushes, numerous small brines and strips of wet meadows. Especially in the period of bird migrations, i.e. in spring and autumn, the park is a refuge for flying birds. Hohe Tauern National Park (Carinthia, Salzburg) - the most valuable treasure of the Hohe Tauern Mountains are typical alpine landscapes with crags, glaciers, waterfalls, valleys, as well as a rich world of plants and animals. There are many different ways to explore the park's secrets - hiking, lecture with slides and special events, such as children's days or hiking days. The Danube Rivers National Park (Lower Austria, Vienna) - the Danube Riversides are the largest areas of this type in Central Europe. They shelter nearly 300 species of birds, including many endangered species. They are also recreational areas for the people of Vienna. You can hike in the area or take a boat across the backwaters. The scenery of these trips is unique. Dyje Valley National Park (Lower Austria) - The Dyje Valley in the north of Lower Austria is considered to be one of the most beautiful Austrian valleys, built of igneous rocks. You can meet many species of Pannonian vegetation here. The Thaya Valley is the most westerly natural habitat of many of them. Winding riverbeds cutting into rock massifs, meadows covered with flower carpets and steep rock walls constitute a characteristic landscape of the valley. In addition to the unique natural beauty, this park, partly located in the Czech Republic, also fascinates with the wealth of castles and ruins as well as the legends surrounding them. Limestone Alps National Park (Upper Austria) - located in