Burkina Faso

Article

August 13, 2022

Burkina Faso - a landlocked country in West Africa. Formerly Upper Volta (Republique du Haute-Volta), in 1984 President Thomas Sankara gave it a new name, which means "land of righteous people" in mossi and diula, the main indigenous languages ​​of the country. The capital of the country is Ouagadougou (Ouagadougou), called Ouaga by the Burkese. Member of the African Union and ECOWAS.

Geography

The area of ​​the country is mostly flat, locally with elevated areas, especially in the western part of the country, where the Guinea Upland is located and here is the country's highest peak, Pic de Nakourou (Tena Kuru) - 749 m above sea level. right on the border with Mali. A little further east is the Chaîne de Banfora range with the country's main tourist attraction - the Cascades de Karfiguéla waterfalls. In Burkina Faso, three important rivers in the region also start their course: the Black Volta, the Red Volta and the White Volta, which then merge to form the Volta River. The natural flora of the country is the savannah. There is lush savannah vegetation in the southwest at the border with Mali and the Ivory Coast. In the north there is a dry savannah with low acacia trees and thorny bushes. There is desert vegetation in the north-east of the country. The most common representatives of the animal world are giraffes, elephants, lions, zebras and vultures.

Climate

Burkina Faso has a predominantly tropical climate with two distinct seasons. The rainy season occurs in the south of the country from May to October, and in the north it is shorter and lasts from July to September. The dry season is 8 to 9 months, from October to June. During the rainy season, rainfall in the country remains between 600 and 900 mm (24-35 in). In the dry season, the Harmattan blows hot and dusty trade wind. Burkina Faso is often hit by prolonged droughts. There are three main climatic zones: Sahel: occurs in the northern part of the country and typically amounts to rainfall of up to 600 mm (24 in) per year. There are high temperatures ranging from 5 to as high as 47 ° C (40-115 ° F). sudano-sahelska: it extends between 11 ° 3 ′ and 13 ° 05 ′ north latitude. There are intermediate temperatures and rainfall. guinea sudano: occurs in the south of the country. The level of rainfall is over 900 mm of rain per year and average temperatures are relatively low.

History

There have been numerous small states in modern Burkina Faso since the 10th century. The origins of statehood are associated with the migrations of the Mossi people, who subjugated the indigenous Gurunsi, Lobi, Bobo and Kurumba tribes to themselves. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Mossi attacked Mali and Songhaj. Defeated by the ruler of Songhai, Sunni Ali did not accept Islam, but fragmented into smaller states, the most important of which were Jatenga and Ouagadougou. These small monarchies were based on the sacralization of a king (called moro naba). Gradually, the area of ​​Burkina Faso was more and more divided into new small countries, the strongest of which remained until the 19th century. In the years 1896–1901 the small Mossi states were conquered by France despite strong resistance. In 1919, the Upper Volta colony was separated from these areas, which joined the composition of French West Africa. In the years 1932–1947, the area was divided by the colonies of Niger, French Sudan and Côte d'Ivoire, then reunited as a French overseas territory. After 1945, the first African trade unions and parties were created, organizations took up the fight against colonial governments. In 1958 Górna Volta was granted autonomy within the French Community. In 1960, the independence of the republic was proclaimed under the name of Upper Volta. The ruling team maintained strong ties with the former metropolis. The first president