Sodium chloride


January 19, 2022

Sodium chloride, NaCl - inorganic chemical compound from the chloride group, salt of hydrochloric acid and sodium. It is the basic ingredient of table salt, evaporated salt and road salt.

Occurrence of

In nature, there are, among others as halite, a mineral that forms rock salt deposits, and dissolved in sea water and in mineral waters (mostly in the so-called brines). Sodium chloride is also a component of extracellular fluids of living organisms (especially animals).

Thermochemical properties


Sodium chloride is used as a food, giving food a salty taste. It is also used in the glass and tanning industry and for food preservation. It is a raw material for the production of hydrochloric acid, sodium, chlorine, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate (soda). It is used to melt snow and ice from streets and sidewalks as a solution of water and sodium chloride freezes at very low temperatures. It is used in spectroscopy and in refrigeration (with ice it forms a cooling mixture, in this case the temperature of this solution can be as low as −21.5 ° C).

Biological significance

Sodium chloride, usually consumed as table salt, is the main source of Na + and Cl− ions for humans and animals. Na + ions play a key role in many physiological processes, from water management, through maintaining constant blood pressure, to the functioning of the nervous system. Consumption of sodium chloride is essential for life, and its daily requirement in an adult is about 5 g. A modern diet usually provides several times more salt. It is present in most food products, such as bread, butter, cheese, cold meats, etc. It is estimated that the daily consumption of salt in Poland per person is approx. 11 g. Scientific research has proven a relationship between excessive consumption of table salt and the development of hypertension arterial. 0.9% sodium chloride aqueous solution, called saline, is used in medicine as an infusion fluid. A solution of this concentration is isosmolar with the blood plasma.

See also

potassium chloride, KCl


External Links

Sodium chloride, [in:] MP Drug Index [online], description of the substance, Medycyna Praktyczna [accessed 2010-08-21].

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