January 19, 2022

Demography - a field of science dealing with the emergence, life and passing of human society. Demography deals in equal measure with population growth, migration, social structure (age, gender, occupation, nationality, religion) and their spatial distribution and social and sociological interactions.


The origins of demography go back to the 17th century - in 1662 John Graunt's study "Natural and Political Observations ... upon the Bills of Mortality" appeared, maintained in the form of primitive, mathematical tables, similar to those later created by Edmond Halley as the basis calculations of probabilities for the life insurance that is being developed. At the end of the 18th century, Thomas Malthus argued that uncontrolled population growth would lead to an exponential increase in population and a related famine, caused by the discrepancy between population growth and increased food production. (see Malthusian Trap, Static Resource Theory). Thomas Malthus is regarded as the father of the overpopulation theory which was developed and made realistic in later works (eg, by Gompertz and Verhulst).

Research object

The population itself and its groups (e.g. the population living in the area, the population staying in the area during the day or night). Structure of the population (age, sex, nationality, number of families). Population movements (mobility, natural population balance, net migration). History of demographics (e.g. historical natural movement).


Demography obtains data for its research from statistical publications, representative statistical samples and censuses. For research on demographic processes, registration statistics are used, among others, from which, for example, the birth rate, death rate, natural increase rate, fertility rate, migration balance, life expectancy, etc. are obtained. Graphical representation of data (e.g. gender and age pyramid) is also typical of demographics. In the historical demography, i.e. before 1850, parish registers, church lists of the faithful, tax lists, accounts of great property, etc. are used.

Demographic development

Models of demographic transformation

The demographic transition model, also known as the demographic transition, is not a theory in a strictly scientific sense, but a model description of the transition from high to low mortality and birth rates and the resulting change in birth rate. The first to lay the foundations for this model were Thompson (1929) and Notestein (1945). Their work was later developed, modified and improved by other authors. The transformation model is used, for example, in: ideological description of changes in mortality and fertility in western industrialized countries (mainly England and Sweden) typologizing countries in terms of their demographic development and looking for reasons for accelerating or slowing down the demographic transformation in a given country.

4-phase model

The original transformation model was divided into 4 phases: phase (high stationary) highly fluctuating, high-level and closely spaced birth and death rates, trace natural increase, with a rapid change of generations. fertility rate: 6 life expectancy: <45 years phase (early expanding) the demographic scissors open up by a decrease in the mortality rate at a constant birth rate, growing population growth. fertility rate: 4.5–6 life expectancy: 45–55 years phase (late expanding) the demographic scissors close as a result of a reduction in the number of births, which decreases faster than the number of deaths, natural growth

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