Europe - part of the world lying in the Northern Hemisphere, on the border between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. It is considered a continent, or a part of the world that forms the continent of Eurasia together with Asia.
The name of Europa derives from the Greek word Εὐρώπη (Europe) and usually through the Latin form Europa has entered almost all the languages of the world. The etymology of the term Εὐρώπη is unclear: perhaps it comes from εὐρωπός (europos) - "gently rising", or from Assyrian erebus, "west". Other theories derive the origin of the name from a Semitic word meaning "dark". The term Old Continent is also used.
Borders of Europe
The course of the contractual border between Europe and Asia in the east and south-east is controversial. This issue is dealt with differently in the science of individual countries, and the greatest discrepancies in this matter occur in Anglo-Saxon science.
It is usually assumed that Europe extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Ural Mountains in the east and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Caucasus Mountains in the south (the Caucasus in some interpretations is included in Europe, and in some not).
Europe is located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, on the border between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. To the north, the continent is surrounded by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by parts of the Atlantic, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Europe and Asia, apart from the land border, are also separated by the Bosphorus and Dardanelles, the Strait of Gibraltar and Sicilian from Africa, and the Danish Strait between Greenland and Iceland from North America.
The area of Europe: it is 10.2 million km² - 10.5 million km² (of which almost 4 million km² is occupied by the European part of Russia). It is approx. 2% of the entire globe (approx. 7.5% of the land area) and Europe as a part of the world is larger only than Australia. Europe makes up 1/5 of Eurasia and as its largest peninsula it is the westernmost.
Latitudinal extent: 5.6 thous. km (79 °)
Meridional extent: 4.2 thous. km (35 °)
Coastal length: 38 thousand. km
Average height of the area: 292 m a.s.l.
The farthest points of Europe (including its islands):
north - Russia (Rudolf Island in the Franz Josef Land archipelago)
to the south - Greece (Gavdos Island near Crete)
to the east - Russia (Cape Flissingski on Novaya Zemlya)
west - Portugal (rocks near the island of Flores in the Azores) The farthest points of mainland Europe:
to the north - Norway (Cape Nordkinn) (due to the road connection through the Nordkapp Tunnel, Cape Knivskjellodden is also considered)
south - Spain (Cape Marroquí)
to the east - Russia (estuary of the Baidarata River into the Kara Sea)
to the west - Portugal (Cape Roca)
Europe is the most fragmented part of the world, with a well-developed coastline, the length of which is approx. 38 thousand. km (without the coastline of the islands).
About 25% of the continent's surface are peninsulas, the largest of which are:
Scandinavian Peninsula (800,000 km²)
Iberian Peninsula (580 thousand km²)
Balkan Peninsula (470 thousand km²)
Apennine Peninsula (150 thousand km²)
Kola Peninsula (120 thousand km²)
Crimean Peninsula (25 thousand km²)
Jutland (24,000 km²)
Breton Peninsula (24,000 km²) (the given area of the peninsulas is approximate)
The islands account for nearly 7.5% of Europe's area, and the largest of them are:
Great Britain (218,476 km²)
Iceland (103,125 km², geologically not part of Europe)
Ireland (84,406 km²)
North Island of New Earth (48,904 km²)
Spitsbergen (37,673 km²)
New Earth South Island (3