Northern Fleet

Article

August 12, 2022

Northern Fleet - the largest and strongest maritime operational union of the Navy of the Russian Federation.

History

World War I

In Russia, during World War I 1914–1918, in order to defend Russian and British ships on the shipping routes in the Barents Sea against German surface ships and submarines, on June 19, 1919, the Northern Ocean Flotilla was established. In March 1920, the Białomorska Flotilla was formed in Arkhangelsk, and in April 1920 it was renamed the North Sea Naval Forces. These operating unions were disbanded in January 1923. The Northern Fleet takes its new beginning from the Northern Navy Flotilla established on June 6, 1933 (commander Z. Kupniew) and from separate ships of the Baltic Fleet (2 destroyers, 2 protection ships, 2 submarines - on May 18 they left Kronstadt, and on August 5 they entered Murmansk ), and therefore renamed the Northern Fleet on May 11, 1937. In September 1933, the second part of the so-called 2 Ships Squad (1 destroyer, 1 security ship, 1 submarine and 2 minesweepers). In 1935, the port of Polarnyj became the base of the ships. In September 1935, the Flotilla was reinforced with a detachment of planes. By May 11, 1937, coastal defense and air defense batteries were completed, airfields were built, and new ships came from the industry.

World War II

During the Winter War 1939-1940, the Northern Fleet performed the assigned tasks, incl. blocked the Finnish Petsamo base. In order to defend the coast, naval bases, ports and perform other tasks in August 1940, the Białomorska Naval Base was established. After the German attack in 1941, the Fleet consisted of: 15 submarines, 8 destroyers, 7 supervisors, 14 surveillance boats, 2 minesweepers, 1 mine ship, 116 aircraft (Fleet Air Force), tactical units and coastal defense and air defense units. The Fleet Forces were based in Polar, Murmansk and Arkhangelsk. During the war, the Fleet forces were reinforced with ships and planes from the Baltic Fleet, the Pacific Fleet and the Caspian Flotilla, as well as mobilized forces from industry and Lend-Lease, and planes also from the Stawka reserve. During the war, the Northern Fleet comprised the Białomorska Military Flotilla and the Northern Defense Region. The Northern Fleet defended the sea coast, cooperated with the wings of land forces, landed sea landings, operated on the enemy's sea lines, defended sea communications, convoyed allied transport ships. In the first months of the war, the Fleet, together with the 14th Army of the Karelian Front, foiled the plan to capture Murmansk, Polar, and the Middle and Rybacz peninsulas. In October 1944, the Fleet took part in the Petrite-Kirkenesian operation of the land forces (about 10,000 sailors fought on land as hastened troops). On April 15, 1945, the Białomorska Military Flotilla was renamed the Białomorska Maritime Defense Region. During the war, the Fleet escorted more than 2,500 ships in convoys in internal waters and about 1,500 transports in external convoys. For their combat merits, 12 ships, units and tactical units were distinguished as guardians, 47 were awarded with orders, 14 were given honorary names, over 48,000 officers and sailors were awarded with orders and medals, 85 were awarded the titles of Hero of the Soviet Union, including four twice.

After World War II

In the post-war period, the Northern Fleet of the USSR underwent transformations. Its main forces were nuclear missile ships equipped with ballistic missiles, long-range aviation equipped with air-to-ground and anti-ship missiles, and airport ships. The fleet was commanded by, among others admirals: K.I. Dushenov, W.P. Drozd, A.G. Gołowko, W.I Płatono