August 13, 2022

France (French, IPA: / fʁɑ̃s /), the French Republic (French République française /ʁ fʁɑ̃.sɛz /) - a country whose metropolitan part is located in Western Europe, also having overseas territories on other continents . Metropolitan France stretches from the Mediterranean Sea in the south to the English Channel and the North Sea in the north, and from the Rhine in the east to the Bay of Biscay in the west. The French often call their country l'Hexagone (hexagon) - it comes from the shape of metropolitan France. France is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra and Spain. The overseas territories also border Brazil, Suriname and the Netherlands. The country is connected to Great Britain through the Channel Tunnel which runs under the English Channel. The French Republic is a unitary democratic state in which the president plays an important role. It is also the fifth most developed country in the world and ninth in the ranking of living conditions. The most important ideals of France were formulated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and in the slogan of the French revolution, liberté, égalité, fraternité ("freedom, equality, fraternity") appearing on official prints and coins. The country is one of the founders of the European Union. It has the largest area among the countries of the Community. France is also a founding member of the United Nations and is part of, inter alia, Francophonie, G7 and the Latin Union. He is a permanent member of the UN Security Council, in which he has veto power. France, due to its population, economic potential, position in Europe, influence in former colonies, and a strong army (the third nuclear arsenal after Russia and the USA) is considered one of the most powerful countries in the world.

Origin of country name

The name "France" comes from the Germanic Frankish tribe that occupied the region after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The Île-de-France region, in which Paris is located, is the birthplace of the French state


France is a country that lies mostly in Western Europe, but has dependent territories and overseas departments on other continents. The area of ​​the metropolitan part of France is 551.5 thousand. km², making it 43rd in the world in terms of area, while the area including dependent territories and overseas departments is 643 801 km². The total land border of France is 2,892.4 km, including: The borders of metropolitan France with: Andorra - 56.6 km, Belgium - 620 km, Spain - 623 km, Luxembourg - 73 km, Monaco - 4.4 km, Germany - 451 km, Switzerland - 573 km, Italy - 488 km. Boundaries of dependencies and overseas departments of: Brazil - 673 km, Suriname - 510 km, Sint Maarten (Netherlands) - 10.2 km

The waters surrounding France

France is surrounded by the following seas and oceans: the North Sea to the north, the English Channel to the north-west, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south (of which the Gulf of Lion and the Ligurian Sea are also distinguished on the coast of France). The largest French island - Corsica, is also doused by the Tyrrhenian Sea. The overseas territories are located on the Atlantic, Indian, South and Pacific oceans and the Caribbean Sea. The total length of the coast is 3,427 km, of which other coasts with their own names stand out: Côte d'Améthyste, Côte d'Argent, Côte de Jade, Côte d'Amour, Côte Sauvage, Côte d'Emeraude , Côte d'Albâtre.

Surface relief

France is mostly a lowland country - more than half of its area lies below 200 meters above sea level. The main areas of ni