Invasive species

Article

January 19, 2022

Invasive species - an allochthonous species with significant expansiveness, which spreads naturally or with human participation and poses a threat to the fauna and flora of a given ecosystem, competing with indigenous species for an ecological niche, and contributing to the extinction of local species. Invasive species represent the second largest threat to global biodiversity, right after habitat destruction. Invasive plant species pose a particular problem in protected areas, displacing native plant species for which these areas have been established. In this case, it is necessary to remove intruders (mainly by mechanical destruction).

Sample species

Europe

In 2018, a list of 66 invasive animal and plant species recognized as the greatest threat to biodiversity and ecosystems in Europe was published. They were selected from among 329 considered dangerous. The list was headed by: Channa argus - fish from the Channidae family, Limnoperna fortunei - clam from the mussel family (Mytilidae) Orconectes rusticus - a crayfish from the Cambaridae family Plotosus lineatus - the eel catfish Codium parvulum - green algae of the order Bryopsidales Crepidula onyx - a snail from the Calyptraeidae family Mytilopsis sallei - clam of the zebrafish family (Dreissenidae) Sciurus niger - black squirrel

Poland

Here are some of Poland's most dangerous invasive species: Plants: Sosnowski's borscht Mantegazzi's borscht Japanese knotweed Sakhalin knotweed Czech knotweed ash-leaf maple Kolczurka klapowana goldenrod late goldenrod small-flower impatiens glandular impatiens glossy cotoneaster spikelets American bird cherry wrinkled rose locust locust rudbeckia naked Animals: breakfast head cake river goby bald grandmother raccoon dog American mink Caspian rowing machine (Cercopagis pengoi) zebra mussel signal cancer striped cancer, also known as American cancer (Orconectes limosus) Nile lates the corn Colorado beetle Raccoon the woolly claw crab american crab eastern sprout Dikerogammarus villosus (sprout) turtles: spines, ornamental, painted and lizard turtles The provisions of the Act on Nature Conservation of 2004 and the relevant ordinance define invasive species, which are prohibited from activities that may contribute to their dissemination in the environment.

Ornithology

In ornithology, the term invasive species also has another meaning. These are species that appear in large numbers in a given area at certain irregular times. As a rule, these are highly specialized species in terms of nutrition. For Poland, examples of this type of bird are: snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca) Siberian Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes macrorhynos) crossbills (genus Loxia): spruce crossbill (L. curvirostra) pine crossbill (L. pytyopsittacus) Larch crossbill (L. leucoptera) Some species show only a certain degree of this type of invasiveness, manifested by fluctuations in the number of migrating individuals, route of passage and range. As a rule, these are species that eat little diversified plant food. In the case of crop failure in a given foraging area (usually wintering grounds), a greater than usual number of specimens continue their journey in search of new feeding grounds. Such an increased number of individuals on the migration route is called the invasive bloom. Examples of this type of invasive species for Poland are such birds as: is common (Carduelis spinus) common brush (Carduelis flammea) great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus) Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius)

See also

invasion pioneering species ruderal plant

Footnotes

Bibliogr

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