Gromada (biology)


August 13, 2022

Gromada (in botany divisio, in zoologii classis) - a name used in Polish to describe two systematic categories of different rank. The term classis was introduced by Carl Linnaeus as one of the five basic categories in the hierarchical biological classification system. The auxiliary categories for a cluster are: supercluster (superdivisio for plants or superclassis for animals), subgroup (subdivisio for plants or subclassis for animals) infragromada (infradivisio for plants or infraclassis for animals).

Differences in botanical and zoological nomenclature

Traditional Polish botanical systematics define the category of "divisio" as "phylum", which is the equivalent of a type ("phylum") in the animal world. Recently, however, the term "type" has been allowed to be used for all organisms. In older literature, the Polish "cluster" in the world of plants does not correspond to the rank of "cluster" in the world of animals.

Taxonomic position in botany

The cluster in botany includes closely related classes. Its position in the hierarchical system (including auxiliary categories) is as follows. Kingdom phylum supercluster cluster (divisio) subdivision infra-cluster superclass class

Taxonomic position in zoology

In zoology, a cluster includes closely related orders. type subtype infratyp supercluster cluster (classis) subdivision infra-cluster overarching row

Examples of clusters

mammals birds amphibians reptiles insects arachnids discus ferns liverworts

See also

systematics of organisms plant taxonomy animal taxonomy


Biology. Multimedia encyclopedia PWN. Edition 2.0. Sp. z o.o., 2008. ISBN 978-83-61492-24-5. Encyclopedia. Biology. Greg, 2008. ISBN 978-83-7327-756-4.