Hip-hop (music)

Article

May 28, 2022

Hip-hop, also hip hop or rap - a genre of popular music, as well as a subculture was established in the 1970s in the United States.

Features

The genre is based on rapping as well as disco, soul and funk music. The music genre of hip-hop consists of: rhythmic style of music with constant BPM and rapping, i.e. rhythmic utterance of the text. The hip-hop music style is one of the pillars of hip-hop culture. Hip-hop music was created when DJs began to create beats by looping solo parts, originally played on drums on two turntables, doing so-called sampling. After some time rapping was added to the looped fragments.

History

Beginnings

Hip-hop originated in 1970 in New York City in the culture of African-American youth living in the Bronx. He began to become popular on the so-called "Block parties" - improvised music and dance meetings taking place outside, which then became popular as an alternative to dangerous discos.

1970s

At street parties in neighborhoods ("block parties"), the DJ played several seconds of rhythmic phrases from recordings of famous songs on a turntable, looped them and combined them into longer musical sequences using a second copy of the same longplay. He looped a given fragment, which created a completely new composition. The first performances of hip-hop music used the technique of combining sound samples and the rhythm of mechanical percussion taken from the first synthesizers that became common then. During the performance, the DJ combined the technique of mixing breaks and rapping vocal toasting style, previously popular in the Caribbean (Jamaica). The first musician to bring hip-hop from discos to the streets and backyards was DJ Kool Herc. Other famous musicians in the genre's early stages include Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Whodini, Fat Boys, Warp 9 and Spoonie Gee. In 1979, the song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang became the first hip-hop hit that gained popularity with the general public. At the turn of the 1970s and 1980s, hip-hop as a musical genre developed into a more complex style. Before this period, it largely limited its reach to the United States. From 1980, it began to spread and became part of the music scene in dozens of other countries.

1980s

The "new school" of hip-hop is particularly audible on RUN-DMC and LL Cool J's recordings from 1983–1984. The golden age of hip-hop - innovative compared to the 1970s - is the period between the mid 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. Major performers from this period include Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions, KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul and A Tribe Called Quest. The 1980s also saw the emergence of the popular gangsta rap style as a sub-genre of hip-hop, often focusing on the violent and criminal lifestyle of the poor inner-city youth. Schoolly D, N.W.A (Eazy-E), Ice-T, Ice Cube and Geto Boys are the musicians most often associated with the emergence of this sub-genre. They were known for combining political and social commentary in the style of political hip-hop with themes of criminal and crime stories.

1990s

West Coast hip-hop and G-Funk dominated mainstream hip-hop in the early 1990s. East Coast hip-hop during the early to mid-1990s was dominated by Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop from Native Tongues, and also hardcore rap, performed incl. by Nas-a, Wu-Tang Clan, The Notorious B.I.G., or the band Onyx. In the 1990s, hip-hop began to separate on the US domestic scene into regional styles such as Southern rap and