July 5, 2022
Holotype - a single nomenclatorial type indicated by the author of the taxon name, on the basis of which a new species or subspecies was distinguished and described, possibly also a taxa in the rank of reference species for the genus and genus for the family. Before selecting a holotype, all specimens of the original series are referred to as syntypes, and when a holotype is selected, all specimens of the original series are referred to as paratypes. When for some reason the holotype does not exist (e.g. the author of the name did not indicate the holotype or the indicated holotype did not survive), another specimen is selected from the series of specimens collected together with the holotype - the so-called lectotype. If neither the holotype nor the original series exists, a new template is selected - the so-called neotype. A subject of a sex different from the sex of the holotype is an allotype. Only holotypes, lectotypes and neotypes are of real value from the taxonomic point of view. The holotype specimen must be stored in an institution open to scientific research, and its location must be indicated in the publication creating the given taxon (species, genus, family). For example, the butterfly holotype Lycaeides idas longinus is in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University (USA), the extinct mammal Cimolodon holotype at the University of Alberta (Edmonton, Canada), and the diatom holotype Diatoma polonica in the collection Institute of Marine Sciences of the University of Szczecin (in the resources of Andrzej Witkowski) as preparation No. 18492. The place (geographic, possibly also stratigraphic) from which the holotype comes is a typical place (locus typicus). The term holotype is also used in mineralogy to name a specimen that has become the basis for distinguishing a new mineral.