Go Carl E.

Article

May 28, 2022

Juan Carlos I, less frequently Jan Karol I, responsible. Juan Carlos I Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias (born January 5, 1938 in Rome) - the king of Spain from the Bourbon dynasty in 1975–2014. Son of Juan de Borbón, Count of Barcelona and Maria de las Mercedes de Borbón, Princess of both Sicily. He was born in an American hospital in Rome on January 5, 1938, as the first son of the Count of Barcelona, ​​grandson of the King of Spain - Alfonso XIII. He was named after his father and grandfather Charles Tancredi (Carlos Tancredi). Juan Carlos has two sisters: the older Pilar (born 1936) and the younger Małgorzata (born 1939). He also had a younger brother Alfons (1941–1956), who died tragically cleaning a revolver.

Name

In Polish literature, it is customary to write the names of ruling monarchs from the circle of Latin culture, including contemporary monarchs, in the Polish form of their names. However, the case of Juan Carlos is one of the few exceptions. Both in the Polish-language media and in scientific literature, it is customary to write his name in Spanish (Castilian) form, that is, "Juan Carlos". The Polonized entry "Jan Karol" is used only sporadically. The king's full name is Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias. He received all names in honor of his ancestors. The name Juan inherited from his father Juan de Borbón y Battenberg, the name Carlos after his grandfather Carlos Tancredo de Borbón-Dos Sicilias, the name Alfonso and Víctor received from his grandparents from the sword line of the King of Spain Alfonso XIII and his wife Victoria Eugenia Battenberg, and he inherited the name María from his mother Maríi de las Mercedes de Bórbon-Dos Sicilias y Orléans.

Curriculum vitae

Youth

The father of the future king, don Juan de Borbón, left Spain after the abdication of his father Alfonso XIII in 1931 and the proclamation of the republic. Both Father Alfonso XIII and don Juan were known for their liberal views. General Francisco Franco, looking for a successor for himself, made don Juan, known for his ambition to regain the throne for him, a proposal that he should give him to raise his son as his successor. Franco wanted to make sure that he would raise Juan Carlos according to his convictions. Ultimately, don Juan gave his consent and ten-year-old Juan Carlos came to Spain in 1948, where he went to a school specially created for him, and together with his cousin - Charles of Sicily, he began his education. After graduating from school, he studied at the academies of navy, land forces and aviation, and then graduated in law and economics. General Francisco Franco was considered the future leader of the country and prepared for this position. Following the advice his father had given him before he left for Spain, he had no views, was withdrawn and submissive, and was therefore accepted by Franco. At the same time, it performed representative functions, but was hardly recognizable in society. In 1967, General Franco issued a decree in which he proclaimed John Charles his successor. At the end of Franco's life, in the years 1973–1975 he was the head of state. In November 1975, King Hassan II of Morocco organized the so-called The Green March, during which 300,000 Moroccan women and children entered the Spanish Sahara. Juan Carlos then called the ministers and commanders of the staffs to him and categorically forbade them to start a war with Morocco, and then, despite their resistance, flew to the capital of the colony to enforce the order by the local administration. Two weeks later, he led to the conclusion of the Madrid Agreements that allowed Morocco to hand over the Sahrawi territories.

King of Spain

Two days after the death of Francisco Franco, on November 22, 1975, he assumed the throne as Juan Carlos I. After ascending to the throne, he opted for the dismantling.