Julian calendar

Article

January 19, 2022

Julian calendar - a solar calendar developed at the request of Julius Caesar by the Greek astronomer Sosygenes (probably modeled on the reform known from the Stone of Kanopos) and introduced in 709 Ab urbe condita (45 BCE) as a calendar in the Roman state. It was in force in Europe for many centuries, e.g. in Spain, Portugal, Poland and Italy until 1582, in Russia from 1700 to 1918 (previously the Byzantine calendar was used, in which the year began on September 1), and in Greece until 1923, which resulted in duality the dates of the new and old order between different states. The Julian calendar was replaced by the Gregorian calendar in 1582; to this day, however, some Churches still use this calendar.

Calendar reform

The reason for the calendar reform was the deregulation of the previously used lunar Roman calendar, resulting in the 708 a.u.c. (46 B.C.) the calendar December was September. To re-sync the calendar with the seasons, the year 708 a.u.c. extended by 80 days. It was "annus confusionis" (Latin for the year of confusion), it was 445 days long. The Julian calendar set the length of the year at 365 days and one additional day every 4 years in leap years. The average length of the year was 365.25 days. As a result of the reform, the length of individual months has changed: Martius (31) - dedicated to Mars, April Fool's Day (30) - dedicated to Venus, Maius (31) - dedicated to all gods, Iunius (30) - probably dedicated to Lucius Junius Brutus, or Juno, Quintilis (31) 'the fifth', Sextilis (31) 'the sixth' - later Augustus in honor of Emperor Augustus, September (31) 'seventh' - Emperor Caligula intended to change the name of the month to 'Germanicus', but the changes were not officially adopted, October (30) 'the eighth', November (31) 'ninth', December (30) 'the tenth', Ianuarius (31) - dedicated to Janus, Februarius (28) - intended for the februas, i.e. cleansing rites, held before the beginning of the new year. Only from 761 a.u.c. (8 CE) leap years are counted every 4 years. Previously, against Caesar's will, they were probably counted every 3 years (probably by mistake or carelessness of the priest responsible). The first leap years were 45 B.C., 42 B.C. and 39 BCE until 9 B.C., when the anomaly was discovered. In 36 years, 12 days were put in instead of 9. For this reason, the emperor Octavian Augustus, after the death of Lepidus as responsible for the calendar of the high priest, ordered that from 746 a.u.c. (9 BCE) correct this error by not inserting additional 12 years into 3 consecutive leap years. In honor of Octavian August, the month of August (Sextilis) was named after him (Augustus). It is not true, however, that he lengthened this month at the expense of February (because the month dedicated to August was supposed to be the same length as that dedicated to Caesar). In fact, the length of the months as we know it today was established during Caesar's reform. Below is the order for the official year (religious year still started in March): Ianuarius (31) - dedicated to Janus, Februarius (28) - intended for fever, i.e. cleansing rites, held before the beginning of the new sacred year. Martius (31) - dedicated to Mars, April Fool's Day (30) - dedicated to Venus, Maius (31) - dedicated to all gods, Iunius (30) - probably dedicated to Lucius Junius Brutus, or Juno, Iulius (31) - in honor of Julius Caesar who was born this month, Augustus (31) - in honor of Emperor Augustus, September (30) 'seventh', October (31) 'the eighth', November (30) 'ninth', December (31) 'the tenth', On which dates to 4 CE inclusive were transfer

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