Colombia, the Republic of Colombia (Spanish Colombia, República de Colombia) - a country in the north-west of South America, lying on the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.
Colombia is located in the northwest of South America, covers a land area of 1,141,748 km² and a sea area of 928,660 km². The territory of Colombia stretches from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific, it occupies a large fragment of the Amazon rainforest, the axis of the country is the Andes chain. Colombia is the only South American country that lies on two oceans. It is administratively divided into regions and departments.
The South American Andes, which run across the continent from the south (Patagonia) along the western edge, end in its most northern part, in Colombia. In this country, they are divided into Western Cordillera, Middle Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera.
This division of the Colombian Andes begins at Nudo de los Pastos and at Nudo de Almaguer or the Colombian Massif.
The Colombian Massif is also known as the Estrella Fluvial de Colombia (River Star of Colombia) because it has the source of the river that flows into the Pacific (Patía), the Caribbean Sea (Cauca and Magdalena) and the Amazon (Caquetá).
The Eastern Cordillera, in turn, is divided near the Venezuelan border into two bands: the Serranía de los Motilones, which marks the border with Venezuela between the Colombian departments of El Cesar and Guajira, and the Venezuelan state of Zulia and Cordillera de Mérida, which continues through Venezuelan territory. Cordillera is the Altiplano Cundiboyacense with altitudes in excess of 2,500 m above sea level. and the natural space of the cities of Bogota and Tunja. This area was the territory of the most important Confederation of South American Tribes - Czibczów.
The Central Cordillera separates the two largest valleys in Colombia: the Cauca Valley and the Magdalene Valley. The Ruiz, Santa Isabel, and Nevado del Tolima mountain glaciers are also found in this cordillera.
The Western Cordillera retains air masses from the Pacific Ocean. The three Cordillera along with the Andean valleys form the Colombian Andean Region and represent the largest part of Colombia's population.
The highest peaks of Colombia are the twin Pico Colón and Pico Bolívar (5775 m above sea level)
Colombia shares a border with the following five countries:
Venezuela 2050 km
Brazil 1,643 km
Peru 1,496 km
Ecuador 590 km
Panama 225 km The total length of the border is 6,004 km
Coastal length: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Colombia includes the following islands:
in the Caribbean Sea
in the Pacific Ocean
Malpelo Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Cristóbal Colón 5,775 m above sea level (the nearby Simón Bolívar has the same altitude)
Rivers of Colombia: Magdalena (1,540 km) with a tributary of the Cauca (906 km) and the left tributaries of the Orinoco - Meta (993 km) and Guaviare (river) (1,300 km)
Climate: tropical along the coasts and eastern plains, cooler in the mountains.
Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, hard coal, iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, emeralds (95% of world production).
Colombia has five continental natural regions and one marine region:
Amazon region: it is the southern part of western Colombia and is a low-lying flat region. It is part of the Amazon basin, it is also called the Colombian Amazon rainforest.
Andean region: corresponds to the Colombian Andes, including the Andean valleys of the Cauca and Magdalena rivers.
Caribbean Region: includes the coastal lowlands of the Colombian Caribbean Sea and rock formations that do not belong to the Andes (such as Montes de María and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta).
Pacific Coast region: includes coastal Pacific plains and rock formations that do not belong to the Andes,