South Korea (kor. 한국, hancha 韓國, trb. Hanguk), actually the Republic of Korea (kor. 대한민국, hancha 大韓民國, trb. Daehan-minguk) (listen to the original pronunciation) - a country in East Asia, in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, formed after World War II in areas occupied by US troops.
South Korea is a mountainous and upland country. In the eastern part, along the coast of the East Sea (Sea of Japan), there are East Korean Mountains, built of Precambrian metamorphic rocks (mainly slate) and granite, cut by river valleys into several mountain ranges: the Diamond Mountains (Sorak-san, 1708 m) on the border with North Korea and Gyeongsang and Sobaek (Cziri-san, 1915 m), separated by the lowland of the Naktong-gang River. In the western part, there is an alluvial plain by the Yellow Sea with isolated elevations of 700-800 m. -san, the country's highest peak) in the Korean Strait.
The climate is monsoon, warm temperate in the northern and central parts, and subtropical in the southern part. The average temperature in January ranges from –4 ° C in the north to 2–4 ° C in the south, in July from 21 ° C to 25–27 ° C, respectively. Average annual rainfall from 1000 mm in the lowlands to 1500 mm in the mountains. Rainfall season June – September (warm, humid monsoon from the Pacific Ocean). Typhoons reach the coast of South Korea in late summer.
A dense network of short mountain rivers used mainly for irrigation. Main rivers: Naktong-gang (512 km) flows into the Korean Strait, Han-gang (488 km) - into the Yellow Sea. There are rapids and waterfalls on the rivers.
Flora, nature conservation, soil
Forests cover 66% of the country's area. In the north, forests with shedding leaves for winter, with oaks, Amur linden, maples and pine, in the south, evergreen forests with evergreen oaks, camellias and bamboo undergrowth. Fir taiga high in the mountains.
In the northern part of the country, brown and tufted soils predominate, while in the south - yellow-green.
The country has about 20 national parks, most of them in the East Korean Mountains, incl. famous Sorak-san National Park (373 km²).
Pre-1948, division of the country and the Korean War
Until 1905, the Korean Empire existed on the Korean Peninsula. It was then that, after the victory in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan annexed the territory of Korea. After Japan's surrender in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided by the Soviet Union and the United States into two spheres of influence, separated by a border along the 38th parallel. For this reason, the Soviet Union played a key role in stabilizing the situation north of the 38th parallel.
In the south, the pro-American Li Syng Man government took power. On July 20, 1948, Li was elected President of South Korea by the National Assembly there. Politicians in the northern part of the country refused to participate in the 1948 United Nations elections to elect Korean authorities. In 1948, an armed uprising broke out on Jeju Island and the situation in the country became increasingly unstable. Li began an attempt to stabilize the country by liquidating opposition to his rule - over 30,000 alleged communists and about 300,000 suspected of sympathizing with communists or any opposition groups were imprisoned.
The destabilization of the South and the growing desire of North Korea to unite the country led to the invasion of North Korea in 1950