Kingdom (biology)

Article

August 13, 2022

Kingdom (Latin regnum, plural regna) - a systematic category used in the systematics of organisms, including related types (phylum) in zoology, or phylum (divisio) in botany. Traditionally, from the time of Carl Linnaeus, the kingdom was considered a systematic category of the highest rank. At the end of the twentieth century systematists introduced a category higher than the kingdom called the domain, super-kingdom, or empire. In the botanical and zoological nomenclature regulated by the International Codes of Botanical and Zoological Nomenclature, the kingdom continues to be recognized as a category of the highest rank. A subcategory of a kingdom is a sub-kingdom. On the other hand, the sometimes used term super-kingdom (superregnum), although formally correct, is used in the rank of the highest systematic category - domain or empire.

Three Kingdoms

The Swedish biologist Charles Linnaeus divided the living world into two kingdoms, which he called Regnum Animale (animals) and Regnum Vegetabile (plants). The inanimate world belonged to the third kingdom - Regnum Lapideum (minerals). In 1866 Ernst Haeckel introduced the Protista kingdom. The division of organisms into three kingdoms was used until the second half of the 20th century.

The Five Kingdoms of Whittaker

In 1969, Robert Whittaker proposed a new concept for the classification of organisms, in which he distinguished five kingdoms: Monera - Including all prokaryotes Protista - protists Animalia - animals Plantae - plants Fungi - mushrooms

The Six Kingdoms of Cavalier-Smith

Thomas Cavalier-Smith is the author of the concept of dividing organisms into six (initially eight) kingdoms, grouped into two empires. Cavalier-Smith added - to the five so far accepted (bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals) - the kingdom of Chromista.

Taxonomic position

The position of the kingdom and sub-kingdoms in the taxonomic hierarchy is as follows: domain (also empire or super kingdom) kingdom (regnum) sub-kingdom (subregnum) phylum (divisio) for plants or type (phylum) for animals

See also

plant taxonomy animal taxonomy Tree of Life

Footnotes