Kriegsmarine

Article

October 28, 2021

Kriegsmarine (die Kriegsmarine, feminine; German transl. Kriegs - military and Marine - navy) - navy of the Third Reich, part of the German armed forces existing in the years 1935-1945 within the Wehrmacht.

History

The German Reichsmarine was bound by the quantity and size limits of ships, by the Treaty of Versailles. From the beginning of the 1930s, Germany, on the wave of rejection of the Versailles Treaty, began to reconstruct the navy. They systematically increased the number of light units (destroyers, torpedo boats, torpedo boats). On May 21, 1935, the navy of the Third Reich was renamed the Reichsmarine to the Kriegsmarine. On June 18, 1935, a British-German naval agreement was concluded, in which the target total displacement of German combat units was set at 450,000 tons (35% in relation to the Royal Navy). This agreement abolished the restrictions imposed by the Versailles Treaty and became the formal basis for the rapid quantitative and qualitative development of the German fleet. From 1935 until the outbreak of World War II, 2 battleships, 3 heavy cruisers, 16 destroyers and 28 submarines, and numerous smaller units were built. In accordance with the plan "Z" (from German Ziel - cel), Germany focused on the creation of a large ocean fleet. The plan provided for: the launching of 6 battleships by 1944, by 1943 - 4 heavy cruisers and 4 more by 1945, 4 light cruisers by 1943 and 13 more by 1948, 2 aircraft carriers by 1941 and 2 more by 1947. because of the increasing economic difficulties and the heavy losses suffered by the Kriegsmarine. In total, during World War II, the Third Reich lost afloat: 6 battleships, 7 cruisers, 27 destroyers, 68 torpedo boats, 701 submarines and many smaller units.

Calendar

1935

March 16 - the final decision was made on the mass construction of submarines and a new organization of naval aviation. May 21 - The Kriegsmarine was established in place of the Reichsmarine. June 29 - The U-1, the first submarine built after 1918, entered service. September 27 - the 1st U-boat Flotilla "Weddigen" was created. Its first commander was Karl Dönitz.

1939

February 14 - battleship Bismarck launched. April 1 - battleship Tirpitz launched. April 28 - Adolf Hitler terminated the German-British Fleet Agreement and announced the unlimited expansion of the Kriegsmarine. September 1 - The Kriegsmarine had 4 battleships, 8 cruisers, 22 destroyers, 16 torpedo boats, 10 escorts, 57 submarines, 32 minesweepers and other smaller units, and approximately 78,000 sailors of various ranks. September 1 - at 4:45 the battleship "Schleswig-Holstein" started World War II with shelling at the Military Transit Depot at Westerplatte. October 14 - German submarine U-47 sinks British battleship HMS Royal Oak after its raid on Scapa Flow. November 27 - German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau sink British auxiliary cruiser HMS Rawalpindi. December 13 / December 17 - Battle at the mouth of La Plata by a British team of cruisers with the German heavy cruiser Admiral Graf Spee, finally ending with the self-sinking of the German raider by its own crew in the waters near Montevideo

1940

April 9 - participation of the Kriegsmarine in the Norwegian campaign - loss of the German cruisers Karlsruhe (after the attack of the British submarine Truant) and Blücher (after shelling and torpedoing by the Norwegian coastal defense near Oslo). Severe damage to the cruiser Königsberg by coastal artillery near Karven (it was sunk by British aviation the next day). April 10 / April 13 - Norwegian campaign - loss of 10 German destroyers in the battles of Narew

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