Nobel Laureates in Physics
Nobel Prize Laureates in Physics - people who have been awarded the Nobel Prize by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for their contribution to the development of physics. The award, which has been awarded since 1901, was funded by the Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel in his will. The founder's inheritance is managed by the Nobel Foundation, which invests funds in such a way that the prize can be awarded annually.
Nominations and selection of laureates
The winners of the award are selected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from among candidates recommended by the Academy's Nobel Committee in the field of physics. The Committee consists of six people, elected from among the members of the academy for three-year terms. The aim of the body is to carry out the procedure of collecting candidates and their initial selection. Nominations for laureates may be submitted only by persons selected by the committee, belonging to one of the following groups:
members (Swedish or foreign) of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences;
previous Nobel laureates in the field of physics;
professors and assistant professors specializing in physics from universities and polytechnics in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland, or researchers at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm;
members of the Nobel Committee in the field of physics;
employed in equivalent positions in one of at least six universities selected by the Academy (in order to prevent any nationality-related favors);
other scientists recognized by the Academy as appropriate. The Academy selects the persons and institutions described in the last two points by the end of September each year. In September of the year preceding the award ceremony, the Nobel Committee sends out nomination forms to about three thousand people who meet the criteria. The deadline for submitting the names of the candidates is January 31 of the award year. The preliminary selection of submitted applications is made by the Nobel Committee, selecting about 250-300 candidates, and then notifying experts in the fields who will be able to assess the substantive contribution of the nominees. Such consultations last from March to May, then the Committee prepares a report for the Academy, containing the opinions of experts and the name or names of persons recommended by the Committee for award. After being signed by the members of the Committee, this document is presented to the members of the Academy in September. The report is discussed at two meetings of the Academy's physical section, after which the winner is elected by majority vote at the beginning of October. The name of the distinguished person or persons is made public. All documents, expert opinions, names of candidates and nominees remain secret for 50 years.
The award ceremony is held every year on December 10, on the anniversary of the founder's death, in the building of the Stockholm Philharmonic (since 1926). After the presentation of diplomas and medals, a banquet is held in the town hall for about 1,300 guests, including 250 students. Apart from the laureates and their families, both events are attended by the King and Queen of Sweden and other members of the royal family, as well as representatives of the Swedish government and parliament.
The medal awarded to the winners during the award ceremony was designed by Erik Lindberg. It presents the personification of Nature, the veil of which is removed from the face by the Genius of Science. There is a Latin inscription on the rim of the medal, which is a quote from Book VI of Virgil's Aeneid: Under the figures of Nature and Genius, the name and surname of the laureate and the inscription REG are engraved. ACAD. SCIENT. SUEC. (Regia Academia Scientiarum Sueciae) denoting the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Each of the laureates also receives a diploma with the appearance of which r