Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize Laureates - people and organizations who have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize by the Norwegian Nobel Committee for their work for world peace. This award was funded by the will of the Swedish industrialist and inventor of dynamite, Alfred Nobel. The Nobel Foundation supervises the award. The Nobel Peace Prize is the only one of all Nobel prizes awarded by a Norwegian organization.
Nomination and selection of candidates
The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to candidates (people or organizations) who
In accordance with the will of the founder, prize winners are selected by the five-person Norwegian Nobel Committee, whose members are appointed by the Storting. Candidate nominations may be submitted by:
parliamentarians or members of government;
members of international courts;
university rectors, professors of sociology, history, law and theology, and directors of peace research institutes and foreign policy research institutes;
winners of the Nobel Peace Prize;
board members of organizations awarded the Nobel Peace Prize;
current and former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee;
Former advisers of the Committee. Nominations for the award granted in a given year may be submitted from September of the previous year to February 1 of the year of its award, however, applications submitted (for reasons beyond the applicant's control) after this date will also be considered, but in the following year. After receiving the applications, the Committee assesses the candidates' activities and prepares a shortlist of applications that will be considered in the next stages of the work. The shortlist (usually 12 to 30 names) is presented to the advisers of the Committee. The advisory body is made up of a small group of Norwegian university professors skilled in fields related to the Nobel Peace Prize, and the director and scientific director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute. Advisors have several months to prepare reports containing their views on the candidates. The Nobel Committee has the right to ask for such a report also from experts who are not advisors.
After presenting the advisors' reports, Committee members debate the shortlisted candidates. The Committee may ask for assistance in gathering additional information on candidate advisors, especially when the candidate is involved in current political affairs. The final selection of the laureate must be made at the latest at the last meeting of the Committee before the announcement of the distinguished name (beginning of October), but usually the Committee reaches its verdict in mid-September. The laureate is selected by majority vote.
The nominations and names of nominees and all information relating to nominations, public and private, remain secret for 50 years. The secrecy clause also prohibits the nominees themselves from being informed, even in private conversations.
Nominees without distinction
Upon expiry of the confidentiality classification, the Nobel Committee may disclose the names of the nominees who have not been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, together with the applicant's details and justification. The database of nominees is available on the website of the Nobel Foundation. The three most sought after names are Józef Stalin, Mahatma Gandhi, and Adolf Hitler. Stalin's candidacy was put forward twice, in 1945 and 1948 with the same justification: For efforts to end World War II. Gandhi, as a peace fighter for respect for human rights, was nominated five times, with the last nomination received by the Committee shortly before his murder, in January 1948. Although the Committee appreciated Gandhi's actions, his activities were criticized by many people associated with the peace movement. In connection with the last candidacy, the Committee considered the award