London (eng. London) - the capital of England and Great Britain, the largest city of the kingdom, situated in its south-eastern part on the Thames. It is the third largest city in Europe, after Moscow and Istanbul; is one of the largest cities in the world, both in the city itself and in the entire agglomeration. The population of London (within the so-called Greater London) is approximately 8,982 million. (2019) in the area of 1572 km²; the entire London agglomeration, including all adjacent towns, in 2015 had almost 14 million inhabitants (the so-called metropolis area). About 20% of the population comes from Asia, Africa and the Caribbean.
Contemporary London is the second largest financial center in the world. It accounts for 30% of the world's currency turnover and 40% of the world's Eurobond turnover. Several hundred banks and large insurance and investment companies have their headquarters there. It is also a huge media center.
In 2018, London was visited by 20.42 million tourists from all over the world - it was the second most visited city in the world after Bangkok, Thailand.
Definitions of London
First of all, it is an administrative region, also known as Greater London, managed by an autonomous authority called the Greater London Authority (GLA). The London agglomeration covers an area similar to Greater London and with a slightly larger population. The core of London is the small, historic City of London, also known as The City or "Square Mile". The City of London has city status as well as being a ceremonial county. The present area of Greater London includes the historic counties of Middlesex and parts of Kent, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire.
The metropolitan area of London (the metropolis) achieved the most dynamic growth in the Victorian era and the interwar period. The development was stopped in the 1940s, due to World War II and the adoption of green belts around the cities. The Metropolitan Police District, the area of Greater London local authority and the London Transport Area changed frequently, but usually corresponded to the boundaries of Greater London.
The origin of the city's name is unclear and is the subject of many theories and conjectures.
According to one legend, the name would come from King Lud, the mythical ruler of the Celtic tribe of Trinovantes, who was to found the city in the 1st century BC. or significantly expand an existing city. After his death, the settlement was named Kaerlud or Kaerlundein (the city of Luda), which was to be transformed into the Roman Londinium.
In 1998, Richard Coates proposed the derivation of the name from the pre-Celtic Old European word (p) lowonid, meaning a river too wide to ford, referring to the Thames. More recent research associates the name with the Proto-Indo-European * lendh, which means "to sink, to drown", and the term * -injo- or * -onjo- used to form place names. The name would then mean "place where floods occur".
Other theories associate the name London with a Celtic word today in the form of llon or lon, meaning food, meal, or dining place, and din, meaning "nice, feeling of acceptance", and the whole name would mean a place with plenty of food, such as a large number of fish at the mouth of the river.
History of London
The first traces of settlement activity in London are the discovered remains of a Roman settlement, which was probably founded in AD 43, i.e. during the invasion of Britain by the Roman Emperor Claudius. The remains of a fortified camp dating back to 70-80 CE were also found. on Cornhill and Ludgate Hill. Rimi