Malaria

Article

October 17, 2021

Malaria, malaria (Middle Italian mala aria 'bad air'; Latin malaria, plasmodiosis, old names: fever from Latin febris fever and paludism) - acute or chronic tropical parasitic disease, the various forms of which are caused by one or more of five species of single-celled protozoa of the genus Plasmodium: the motile spore (Plasmodium vivax); banded plague (Plasmodium malariae); sickle cell worm (Plasmodium falciparum); oval plague (Plasmodium ovale); The monkey plague (Plasmodium knowlesi). Recent studies have shown that the monkeys in Southeast Asia, which were previously thought to be pathogenic primarily to monkeys, can also lead to human infections. Its features are similar to the malaria plague, but the course of the disease is severe and similar to the sickle plague. In humans, the most common infections are motile and sickle-shaped spores, the latter causing the most severe form of the disease and relatively most often death. Other Plasmodium species infect animals. The vector of malaria that transfers it between sick and healthy people are female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. It is the most common infectious disease in the world, affecting more than 220 million people every year, and 1-3 million die (mainly children under 5 from Black Africa). An estimated 216 million people contracted malaria in 2016, which is 5 million more people compared to 2015. Outbreaks outside tropical and subtropical areas endemic to this disease are encountered in people returning from these regions, and occasionally near airports and ports where Anopheles mosquitoes are introduced.

Epidemiology

Malaria is found in over one hundred tropical and subtropical countries; About 1 billion people are at risk of developing the disease. Embryos require 2 hosts for the complete development cycle: a human being an intermediate host (it reproduces asexual protozoa) and an Anopheles mosquito, which is the final host (sexual reproduction takes place there). It is the infected people that are the reservoir of the pathogen - the malarial plague. The vector of malaria is about 80 different species of Anopheles mosquitoes (including moths). Infection occurs when infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, feeding on human blood, introduce parasozoites into the human body with their saliva. Infection can also occur through blood transfusions, infected needles and syringes, and from a pregnant woman to the fetus via the placenta. Gametocytes from a person suffering from malaria enter the body of a female mosquito, where within 8–35 days they undergo a development cycle in the course of which sporozoites are formed. When bitten by a mosquito, sporozoites enter the human blood. The prevalence of malaria depends on the extent of the parasite-carrying mosquitoes, the extent of the Plasmodium, and these are dependent on complex environmental, biological and socio-political factors, as well as the WHO's 1953 anti-malaria program. Due to favorable conditions for Anopheles mosquitoes, malaria spreads mainly in regions where the air temperature is 16-33 ° C and the average relative humidity is above 60%. Mosquito larvae do not develop at air temperatures below 10 ° C, and at temperatures of 10-16 ° C they develop more slowly and have a shorter lifespan. Due to the lower temperature and air humidity, malaria infections rarely occur at altitudes above 2,000-2,500 m above sea level. Female mosquitoes eat from dusk to dawn, and have

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