Mandrill mandrill, mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) - a species of primate from the subfamily of vervets (Cercopithecinae) within the family of vervets (Cercopithecidae), closely related to the equatorial mandrill, the largest representative of verveters.
In the Polish zoological literature, the species M. sphinx was designated with the name "mandrill". In the publication "Polish nomenclature of mammals of the world" published in 2015 by the Museum and Institute of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the species was given the name "mandrill of the moths", reserving the name "mandrill" for the genus of these primates.
Scope of occurrence
The red mandrill is found in central-west Africa, from southern Cameroon (south of the Sanaga River) to mainland Equatorial Guinea, in western Gabon (in the east, its range is limited by Ivindo and Ogowe) and in southwestern Congo (south of the Kouilou River and in down to the Congo River). It does not occur east of the Dja River in Cameroon and in the forests of south-east Cameroon.
The species was first scientifically described in 1758 by the Swedish naturalist Charles Linnaeus, who gave it the name Simia sphinx. As a typical place of catching the holotype, Linnaeus indicated Borneo (Latin Habitat in Borneo), corrected at Bitye, near the river Dja, in Cameroon.
Molecular studies suggest that there are two distinct populations of M. sphinx; A 2003 study found that the Ogowe River in Gabon crosses their range, dividing them into two distinct populations: Cameroon and northern and southern Gabon. The Illustrated Checklist of the Mammals of the World considers this taxon to be a monotype species.
Mandrillus (Mandril): fr. mandrill "mandryl", Spanish mandrill "mandrill", from mandrill "baboon", from man "man"; drill "drill".
sphinx: in Greek mythology, the Sphinx (Greek: Σφιγξ Sphinx) was a predatory monster of various appearances living in Thebes, which kept travelers puzzles and torn to shreds those who answered incorrectly.
Body length (excluding the tail) of females 55–67 cm, males 62–110 cm, the length of the tail of females 5–9 cm, males 7–10 cm; female body weight 11–13 kg, males 18–33 kg. Mandrills are the largest monkeys after the anthropoid gorillas, chimpanzees and orangutans. The males have a characteristic coloration. The snout and seat calluses are clearly colored blue, red and purple. Young and female are browner. Young males gain their coloration only in 5-6 years of age, when they reach sexual maturity.
Mandrills live in evergreen moist equatorial forests. Mandrills reside mainly on the ground, sometimes also in the bottom layer of tree crowns. These animals form groups (harems) of up to 20 individuals, are led by one male and occupy the territory of approx. 50 km². Often several of these groups are combined to form large, loose groups.
Mandrills eat fruit, seeds, roots, tubers, mushrooms, insects, and sometimes small invertebrates.
After a pregnancy lasting 220-270 days, 1 young are born. Females are fertile on average every 33 days. They reach sexual maturity after the age of 4. The longest recorded age of the mandrill is 46 years.
Status and threats
Due to the destruction of the natural environment and excessive hunting (for meat or for game breeding), the mandrill is in danger of extinction. To save him, it is necessary to quickly organize jungle reservations.
T.S. Palmer. Index Generum Mammalium: a List of the Genera and Families of Mammals. North American Fauna. 23, pp. 1-984, 1904 (English).
P. Matschie & L. Zukowsky. Einige Formen des Mandrills aus Cameroon und angrenzenden Geb