Muchlisa Bubi (Russian: Мухлиса Буби, father. Мөхлисә Бубый, property. the Jadids. Activist for the rights of Muslim women in Soviet Russia and then the USSR. The first woman in modern Islamic history to hold the position of a Cadi.
Childhood and Early Youth
She came from the village of Iż-Bobja in the wiacka governorate. Her father Gabdulgallam and grandfather were imams and village teachers. Grandmother Hubby Jamal was also a teacher. The mother, Badralbanat, was the daughter of an imam, knew Arabic, Persian and Turkish and was considered an expert on Islamic law (alima). The parents set up a school in the village, where the father taught local boys, and the mother - girls. Her brothers Gobajdułła and Gabdułła belonged to the first generation of the reformist Jadid movement. As a child, Muchlisa learned Arabic and Persian from her parents, learned the basics of Islam, had access to her father's library. Her keen interest in books and science led her father and brothers to take her education more seriously. Her brother Gabdułła supported the equality of women and men, claiming that God made everyone equal, and it was the duty of men to give women their due, equal place in society.
At eighteen, Muchlisa was married to a country mullah. She gave birth to a daughter, Mundżija, and also adopted the daughter of a deceased maid. The marriage turned out to be unsuccessful - in 1897, with the consent of the brothers, Muchlisa left her husband and returned to her native village with her daughters. Her husband, however, refused to divorce and the relationship formally lasted until 1917.
Principal of girls' schools
In 1895, Gabdułła opened a school by the mosque in Iż-Bobja and began to teach there according to his own curriculum. Two years later, Gabdułła and Gobajdułła established a school for girls and entrusted their sister with the position of its manager. At the same time, Muchlisa expanded her knowledge under the watchful eye of her brothers, and then passed on the knowledge to the students. The school in Iż-Bobja was the first female school to implement the educational ideas of the Jadids. Graduates received a diploma entitling them to work as teachers. Muslim women from the areas of today's Tatarstan and Volga region, but also from Central Russia (including Moscow), Siberia, Tashkent, Samarkand, Bishkek and Siemipałatyn, came to the school. In 1910, the school had eight classes and its curriculum included Turkish grammar and literature, Turkish script, Arabic, Russian, Quranic recitation, calligraphy, arithmetic, geography, science, natural history, household management and craft. A year later, the school was closed by the Russian authorities, which recognized it as a center of undesirable pan-Turkish and pan-Islamic thought. The men's school in Iż-Bobja was closed even earlier. The founding brothers of the facility were sentenced to six and two months in prison, and left Russia after serving their sentence.
Muchlisa Bubi was not imprisoned and in 1911 she moved to Troicko, where, at the invitation of the wealthy Jauszew family, she became the head of the girls' school they founded, where the Jadid program was carried out. The organization of the facility actually lasted three years. Opening the school in August 1914, Muchlisa Bubi called for the education of women, which she believed was a necessary condition for the further development of the entire Tatar community in Russia. A year later, the Jauszews also founded a teaching school for Muslim women. Opening it, Much