The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; fr. Organization du traité de l'Atlantique nord - OTAN, customarily NATO or the North Atlantic Alliance) - an international political and military organization established on the basis of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on April 4, 1949, in force from August 24, 1949. The main purpose of NATO at the time of its creation was military defense against attack by the USSR and its satellite states, since 1955 organized into the structure of the Warsaw Pact. After the collapse of the USSR and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991, it plays a stabilizing role, taking steps to prevent the spread of regional conflicts. It also acts as a guarantor of the external security of the Member States. The Alliance is based on the principle of collective defense, in line with its basic premise that an armed attack on one member is considered an attack against all members.
Tasks and Goals
The basic legal act underlying NATO's operations is the North Atlantic Treaty, also known as the Washington Treaty, signed in Washington on April 4, 1949. The agreement is a document composed of 14 articles defining the most important obligations of the allies to each other and to the alliance as a whole. Particularly important from the point of view of defense is Article 5, which stipulates that any external armed attack against one or more Member States will be treated as an attack against all signatories to the agreement.
The casus foederis formula contained in this article is a special type of military solidarity between the members of the Alliance. NATO is an organization that aims to collectively protect its members as the basis for preserving peace and strengthening international security. From an international legal point of view, NATO is an international organization based on the allied security system. Pursuant to the Washington Treaty, each member state undertakes to contribute to the development of peaceful and friendly international relations and to care for the security of its own and other members of the alliance and to strengthen its armed forces.
The main goal of the Alliance is to guarantee, by political and military means, freedom and security to all its members. To achieve this goal, NATO carries out basic security tasks:
provides the foundation for sustainable security in Europe based on the development of democratic institutions and the peaceful resolution of conflicts
provides a means of deterrence and defense against any form of attack on the territory of any Member State
develops international security through constant and active cooperation with all partner countries belonging to the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
it sends its military missions to states where an armed conflict is taking place in order to settle the conflict; however, an important provision of the treaty is Article 3 obliging each of its parties to strengthen their own and collective defense capabilities:
Alliance territorial range
Pursuant to Art. 6 of the treaty, the territorial scope of the pact covers the territory of either party in Europe or North America, the Algerian departments of France, the territory of Turkey and the islands under the jurisdiction of either party in the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer. The obligations of the treaty also apply in the event of an attack on any of the armed forces, ships or aircraft of any of the parties located in or over these territories, or in any other area in Europe where, on the date of entry into force of the treaty, the forces of occupation of which some