Governor - official representative of the King of Poland (Emperor of Russia) in the territory of the Kingdom of Poland. The office of governor was created under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland of November 27, 1815. In 1874 most of its powers were transferred to the newly created office of the governor-general of Warsaw.
The governor was to be appointed from among members of the royal family or citizens of the Kingdom of Poland, including persons naturalized by the king.
Scope of operation
The position of the governor in the Kingdom was more precisely defined in Chapter III of the constitution ("About the governor and the Council of State"). He managed all public affairs in the country, and in the monarch's absence he presided over the Council of State. He was also a member and head of the Administrative Council. He retained the right of veto over its decisions, but his own decisions (with the exception of the veto) had to be countersigned by the competent minister.
The governor had numerous, indirect, creative powers, he presented the king with two candidates for nominations for the positions of: archbishop, bishop, senator, minister, judge of the supreme tribunal, counselor of state and referendary (Art. 69).
The governor's powers did not cover financial and budgetary matters, and the army and foreign policy of the Kingdom, which were constitutionally identical to the policy of the Empire, were also excluded from his jurisdiction. Only the king had the right to grace and nobility.
During the permanent absence of the governor (death, resignation from office), the power in the Kingdom was exercised by the president of the Administrative Council appointed for this occasion. During the November Uprising, the president of the Administrative Council was renamed the president of the Provisional Government, and then the National Government.
After the death of Fyodor Berg (1874), the post of governor was not filled, and most of his powers were transferred to the newly created office of the governor-general of Warsaw.
The powers of the governor-general were smaller than those of the governor, but he remained both the highest civil servant and commander of the Warsaw Military District. This circle encompassed all governorates of the Kingdom of Poland, with the exception of the Suwałki Governorate, as well as the neighboring poviats of the Grodno and Volhynia Governorates. Like the governor, the governor-general was directly responsible to the tsar. He had extensive powers, he could punish the inhabitants of Congress Poland with death without a trial. He could issue the so-called statutory provisions which may suspend certain rights.
Governors of the Kingdom of Poland
Vasily Łanskoj (June 27 - December 1, 1815)
Józef Zajączek (December 25, 1815 - July 28, 1826)
vacat (July 29, 1826 - September 1830, the powers of the governor transferred to the Administrative Council, under the leadership of Walenty Faustyn Sobolewski)
Iwan Dybicz Zabałkański (February 2, 1831 - June 10, 1831 as the governor of the occupied provinces)
Ivan Paskiewicz (1832 - January 20, 1856)
Wincenty Krasiński (in 1855–1856, temporarily during his illness and after Paskiewicz's death)
Mikhail Gorchakov (from 1856 to May 3, 1861)
Nikolai Suchozanet (1861)
Charles Lambert (1861)
Aleksandr Lüders (from November 1861 to June 1862)
Konstanty Mikołajewicz Romanow (from June 1862 to October 31, 1863)
Fyodor Berg (1863–1874)
Paweł Kotzebue (1874–1880)
Piotr Albiedyński (1880–1883)
Josif Hurko (1883-1894)
Paweł Szuwałow (1894–1896)
Aleksandr Imeretyński (1896–1900)
Ivan Podgorodnikov (1900-1901) (Acting)
Mikhail Cherkov (1901-1905)
Konstantin Maksymowicz (1905)
Georgy Skałon (1905–1914)
Jakow Żyliński (1914)
Anton von Essen (October 8, 1914 - January 20, 1915, acting)
Paweł Jengałyczew (February 7, 1915 - August 5, 1915, formally until the February revolution