Nelson Mandela


August 12, 2022

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, pronounced xhosa: [xoˈli: ɬaɬa manˈde: la] (born July 18, 1918 in Mvezo, died December 5, 2013 in Johannesburg) - South African politician, president of South Africa in 1994–1999, one of the leaders of the movement against apartheid, human rights activist, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize. Also known in South Africa as "Madiba" (the name of one of the Xhosa clans), and also "papa", which was often spelled "Father of the Nation". He was both the oldest (he resigned at the age of 81) and the longest-lived president of South Africa (he died at the age of 95). In 1942, he joined the African National Congress (ANC), and in 1950 began to lead it. Initially, he was a supporter of non-violence. He and his associates changed his mind after the massacre during the Sharpeville protest in March 1960 and the banning of the ANC. A year later he became the leader of the armed wing of ANC Umkhonto in Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation", MK). The armed actions of "Umkhonto we Sizwe" during Mandela's time were, however, to be exclusively sabotage in nature and ruled out attacks on people. They damaged installations of great importance for the South African economy. He was arrested on August 5, 1962, and convicted of alleged acts of sabotage and preparing a foreign invasion of South Africa. Inmate in a Robben Island prison. In 1985, he refused to be released on parole. In March 1982 he was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Cape Town, in December 1988 he was transferred again, this time to St. Victor Verster near Paarl. He spent 27 years in prison (of which 18 on Robben Island). He was released on February 11, 1990 under the influence of the ANC campaign and international pressure, as decided by President F.W. de Klerk, which also enabled the legalization of the ANC. On March 18, 1992, South Africans voted in a referendum to end apartheid. He headed the ANC from June 1991 to December 1997, with which he achieved the best result and most seats in parliament in the first free elections on April 27, 1994. The newly elected parliament elected him in May 1994 as the president of South Africa - the first black president in the history of the country. He held this office from May 10, 1994 to June 16, 1999, during the period of a peaceful transition from apartheid. He gained international recognition - together with de Klerk he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

Curriculum vitae


He was born on July 18, 1918 in Mvezo, a small village near Umtata in Transkei. His middle name was Rolihlahla, which means troublesome in Xhosa. In later years, he was known as Madiba, derived from the name of his family clan. His great-grandfather, Ngubengcuka, who died in 1832, was the chief of Thembu living in Bantustan Transkei in the modern Eastern Cape Province. This tribe was known to resist the colonial inclinations of the Dutch, British and other Europeans. One of the king's sons, named Mandela, was Nelson's grandfather and at the same time derived the name of the future president. Since Nelson's grandfather was the king's only child with his wife of the Ixhiba clan, he was thus considered a child of the so-called an illegitimate race and was not eligible to inherit the throne. Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, was the leader of the tribe he took over in 1915 after his predecessor was accused of corruption by the authorities. He had 4 wives and 13 children (four sons and nine daughters, the children lived in other villages). Also in 1926, Gadla was dismissed for corruption, which Nelson believed was really only a false accusation of white authorities about which his father was skeptical. Nelson himself from his mother's side (Gadla's third wife) came from the Xhosa tribe. Nelson's mother was the daughter of Nkedam et al