Submarine

Article

August 13, 2022

Submarine - a military watercraft, a ship structurally adapted to carry out activities and operations both on the surface and under water; one of the main classes of ships today. Submarines are capable of independent immersion and ascent and controlled swimming under water, as well as for conducting combat and other operational activities in this environment. Submarines move on the surface by using the rules governing buoyancy. They descend and are submerged by controlled negative and then zero buoyancy; they ascend in turn by means of the depth controls, and in the final phase of the ascent - by causing positive buoyancy. The propulsion of units of this class is usually provided by a diesel engine (on the surface) and electric motors (submerged), which, through the transmission and propeller shaft, cause the propeller to rotate. The intensive development of this class of ships began in the second half of the 19th century; The precursor to the construction of modern submarines is conventionally considered to be the American John Holland, who was the first to build a submarine with a motor drive both in the surface and underwater position. The first submarines were created without the support of governments - they were the work of private enthusiastic inventors, fascinated by the possibility of swimming and fighting under water. Soon, however, the authorities began to appreciate their combat potential, and in countries such as the United States or the Russian Empire, they began to be adopted into the arming of navies. For the first time, submarines played a significant role during World War I, in which they participated in the fleets of all the most important participants. The peak of their military use so far took place during World War II, when they quickly became one of the most important classes of warships in naval warfare in all major theaters of operations. War experiences and the Cold War intensified the post-war technical development of submarines, which resulted in technological development in the form of the introduction of nuclear propulsion, as well as intensified work on the possibility of using non-nuclear propulsion, which would enable underwater swimming with a high degree of independence from access to atmospheric air. Technological development in this field of shipbuilding has led to a change in the current anti-submarine (ZOP) paradigms, according to which submerged submarines were considered relatively easily detectable under water using the available ZOP techniques. As proved by the Anglo-Argentine Falkland conflict, as well as a number of post-Cold War exercises of the ZOP forces, modern submarines are in practice undetectable under water using modern technical methods, while the firepower and multiple uses make them one of the most powerful weapons in the modern battlefield. Submarines are fundamentally different from surface units. Due to the fact that they operate in the underwater environment, unlike surface units and airplanes, they work best in isolation. They also require a unique combination of weapons and sensors, and tactics based on stealth and surprise. They are best suited for sudden torpedo or rocket attack, war of destruction and as single salvo attack platforms to land. On the other hand, they are least effective in operations requiring long-term exposure and hard defense. From a strategic point of view, submarines break the classical rule of Mahan's doctrine of destroying the core of its fleet in order to defeat an enemy in war. Instead, they allow you to bypass the classic battle against the enemy fleet and defeat them with various forms of be