COVID-19 pandemic

Article

October 28, 2021

COVID-19 pandemic - a pandemic of the infectious COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. It started as an epidemic on November 17, 2019 in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, Central China, and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. In the period from November 2019 to January 2020, the disease appeared mainly in the city of Wuhan, in central China, but already in mid-January, the virus spread throughout China. In the second half of February, outbreaks of infections with hundreds of patients broke out in South Korea, Italy and Iran. From March 4, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 infections have been recorded in Poland. On March 13, 2020, WHO announced that Europe has become the center of the coronavirus pandemic. Later, the disease spread to other continents, and Antarctica became the last to be diagnosed in December 2020. By October 27, 2021, nearly 245.55 million cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection had been reported in 192 countries and territories. Of this number, there are over 18.01 million active cases, over 222.55 million recoveries and over 4.98 million deaths. On an international scale, measures have been taken to prevent the spread of infections. Travel has been reduced, quarantines and curfews have been introduced, and a number of sporting, religious and cultural events have been postponed or canceled. Police measures have been introduced in China and South Korea. Some countries have closed their borders or introduced restrictions on border traffic, including passenger arrivals, and restrictions on people crossing the border. Passenger temperature controls were introduced at airports and railway stations. Due to the outbreak of the pandemic, schools and universities were closed at the national or local level in 177 countries, which in the global dimension affected nearly 1.27 billion pupils and students (72.4%). The pandemic caused global social and economic disruptions, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression. Delayed or canceled sports, religious, political, and cultural events, and widespread supply shortages, exacerbated by panicked purchases , and to reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases (Eng.). Conspiracy theories and misinformation about the virus began to spread across the internet and in the media. There have been a number of cases of xenophobia and racism against Chinese and other people in East and Southeast Asia.

Epidemiology

The first cases of the new disease causing pneumonia were recorded in mid-December 2019 among residents associated with Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market - the animal and seafood market in Wuhan. Subsequent investigation showed that this was a factor in its spread, but the first infection did not have to occur there. The earliest ones could not get infected directly in the market. In early January 2020, Chinese scientists isolated a new coronavirus from samples taken from patients, which turned out to be genetically similar to the SARS virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). According to the scientific consensus, the SARS-CoV-2 virus is of natural origin. The movement of people in connection with the Chinese New Year celebrations in the second half of January has greatly facilitated the spread of infections in China. At the same time, the virus was also spreading outside the country - the first case outside its borders was confirmed on January 13 in Thailand. In contrast, the first cases of COVID-19 infection in Europe were reported on January 24 in two people living in France. On January 30, the WHO Threat Committee recommended

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