Petersburg (recommended form), Saint Petersburg (variant exonym) (Russian: Санкт-Петербург, Sankt-Pietierburg, colloquially Петербург, Pietierburg, Пи́тер, Pitier; formerly Petrograd, Russian: Петроград, Leningrad, Russian city, Leningrad) located in the Neva delta on the Gulf of Finland. In the years 1712–1918 the capital of the Russian Empire. Area 1439 km², population 5 384 342.
Petersburg is a separate city of the Russian Federation and constitutes its separate entity. It is the capital of the North-West Federal District and the Leningrad Oblast, although it does not belong to it itself.
The name of the city has changed over the centuries. Originally in honor of St. Peter, the city was called Сан (к) тпитербурхъ, which was modeled on the Dutch pronunciation of Sint Petersburg, and was due to the fact that Tsar Peter I stayed in the Netherlands for some time in his youth. Later, the name stabilized in its current German version.
After the outbreak of World War I, on August 31, 1914, the German-sounding name was changed for patriotic reasons to its Russian translation for Petrograd (Петроград). Almost ten years later, on January 26, 1924, Petrograd became Leningrad - in this way the memory of Vladimir Lenin, the late leader of Soviet Russia, was honored. On September 6, 1991, the city was re-named to its former name.
Piter (Пи́тер) - this, in turn, is the unofficial, caressing, colloquial name of the city, which already existed in the 19th century, was used both in Soviet times and today. Stosuje się też określenia Культурная столица (Stolica Kultury), Северная столица (Północna Stolica), Вторая столица (Druga Stolica), Северная Венеция (Wenecja Północy), Северная Пальмира (Palmyra Północy), Петрополь (Pietropolis), Невоград (Newograd), Окно в Европу (Window to Europe).
The recommended Polish name of the city (exonym), in accordance with the findings of the Commission for the Standardization of Geographical Names, is the traditional form of St. Petersburg. In 2006, the Commission allowed the use of the variant exonym Saint Petersburg, still recommending the use of the name Petersburg in Polish.
Petersburg is the largest economic, cultural and scientific center of Russia after Moscow, but in terms of tourist visits, it exceeds the capital, and so, for example, in 2004 there were 3.4 million of them. UNESCO proclaimed it the eighth most attractive tourist city in the world, incl. due to opinions that it is one of the greatest urban complexes in the world.
According to maps and topographic data from 1864, it is commonly reported that St. Petersburg is located in the Neva delta on 101 islands. In fact, under the influence of natural factors and as a result of human activity, this number has steadily decreased since then. At the beginning of the 1970s, there were only 50 islands. These islands are connected by 396 bridges, of which 14 of the largest are opened every night to allow ships to reach Lake Ladoga. For this reason, it is sometimes called the Venice of the North.
There are 41 universities in the city, including the Saint Petersburg State University, over 170 scientific and research institutions, over two thousand libraries (including the Mikhail Saltykov-Shhedrin Library), the Pulkovo astronomical observatory, the Mariinsky Theater, which operated in 1920–1992 as the Theater of Opera and Ballet them. Sergey Kirov. There is a world-famous philharmonic, established in 1862.
St. Petersburg is one of the main museum centers in the world. Its resources are made available by one of the three largest museums in the world - the Hermitage - as well as the State Russian Museum, the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) and several hundred smaller ones. Near the city are located